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51 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
holistic study of the human species. It includes the study of human biology, human physical evolution, human cultural evolution, and human adaptation
the study of the human fossil record.
the jutting forward of the lower face and jaw area
focusing on the interaction of biology and culture
Gluteus maximus
is the largest of the gluteus muscles which are located in each buttock
Carbon 14
Radiocarbon dating is a radiometric dating method that uses the naturally occurring isotope carbon-14 to determine the age of carbonaceous materials up to ca 60,000 years. Within archaeology it is considered an absolute dating technique.
B vitamin complex, Folate is necessary for the production and maintenance of new cells [2]. This is especially important during periods of rapid cell division and growth such as infancy and pregnancy. Folate is needed to make DNA and RNA, the building blocks of cells
UV radiation
As a defense against UV radiation, the body tans when exposed to moderate (depending on skin type) levels of radiation by releasing the brown pigment melanin. This helps to block UV penetration and prevent damage to the vulnerable skin tissues deeper down.
Out of Africa model
recent African origin model- the hypothesis that Homo Sapiens
recently evolved as a separate species in Africa and then spread to replace more archaic populations.
- mitochondria DNA- the genetic material found in the cells nucleus. It does not play a role in inheritance and thus may give a more accurate measure of the genetic differences among populations. Found in every human cell, but not nucleus, passed from mother-daughter
walking on two legs
a geographic continuum in the variation of a particular trait
in biology the same as sub species. In culture, cultural categories to classify and account for human diversity
determine whether sharp, force blunt force, or gunshot injury occurred before the death of the individual
determine whether sharp, force blunt force, or gunshot injury occurred after the death of the individual
remains of life forms of the past
cause of death
homicide, suicide, accident, natural causes
sub-pubic angle
Male pelvis are deeper, with smaller pelvic apertures sharp angle is male, for females- The sacrum is flatter (less curved) which increases the diameter of the birth canal and the ischial spines project less into the pelvic cavity. The sub-pubic angle is wide (90 degrees).
the study of how organisms become part of the paleontological record-how fossils form and what processes affect them through time.
photo superimposition
used in forensic anthropology, like facial reconstruction, used with skulls, to find what deceased person looked like
The ends of the long bones and parts of some other bones are detached in children's skeletons. This allows the bones to grow. These detached parts are known as epiphyses, and they all fuse at different ages, from c.15 years onwards.
Raymond Dart
he had discovered the Taung child, who was only three years old at the time of death. He named it Australopithecus africanus, "australis" meaning south and "pithecus" meaning ape. The world was soon as intrigued by Dart because Taung is neither ape nor human, but is classified somewhere in between. This is because the Taung child has an ape sized brain, but the dental and postural characteristics are close to those of humans
Australopithecus afarensis
a fossil species from East Africa, the oldest well established species in the hominid line. Dated 3.9 to 3 mya, it had a small chimp sized brain but walked fully upright.
last major division of geologic time lasting from 65 million years ago to the present.. Early in the Cenozoic, Greenland began to separate from Europe; Antarctica and Australia, and Africa and India also separated. The great Alpine-Himalayan mountain systems were formed; rifting with associated volcanic activity occurred in Africa, Europe, Asia, and Antarctica. In the late Cenozoic, the Cascade Range of volcanoes extended from southern British Columbia to N California
is the period in the geologic timescale that extends from 5.3 million to 1.8 million years before present.As with other older geologic periods, the rock beds that define the start and end are well identified, but the exact dates of the start and end of the epoch are slightly uncertain. The Pliocene was named by Sir Charles Lyell. The name comes from the Greek words pleion (more) and ceno (new) and means roughly "continuation of the recent" and refers to the essentially modern mammalian faunas.
Half life
the time needed for one half of a given amount of radioactive substance to decay. Used with carbon dating
is the large bone in the tarsus of the foot. It is the calcaneous bone that forms the projection of the heel behind the foot
assuming an interrelationship among the part of a subject, antro is a holistic discipline.
Forensic anthropology
identification of skeletal remains and the assessment of time and cause of death.
Clyde Snow
famous forensic anthropologist, examined remains for causes of death. He worked extensively with Americas Watch and other human rights groups. In the 1980's he went to Argentina to exhume mass graves filled with innocent civilians who had been killed by government death squads during the war. He has worked in Argentina, Guatemala, Ethiopia, Philippines, Croatia and others. So far his work has led to the conviction of five officers in Argentina
Absolute dating technique
a dating method that gives a specific age, year, or range of years for an object or site.
Relative dating technique
a dating method that indicates the age of one item in comparison to another. It provides relative dates by indicating that one later is older or younger than another.
part of pelvis, see images on next page
H. erectus
species first appeared in Africa. 1.8 mya-100,000 ya. First species to expand from that continent. Fossils found in Africa and asia , average brain size, 2/3 of modern human, stone tools, control fire late in existence
the pigment largely responsible for the human skin color
named after fossil found in Neander Valley in Germany. Similar to modern humans, foreheads sloped, back of skull broad, sides bulging, face large and prognathous, heavier bone structure, short limbs-colder climates, date 225,000-28,000 ya. Intentionally buried dead, developed religion
Multiregional model
the hypothesis that homo sapiens is about 2 million ya and that modern human traits evolved in geographically diverse locations and then spread through the species.
the study of the earth’s strata, layers
The femur or thigh bone is the longest, most voluminous and strongest bone of the human body. It forms part of the hip and part of the knee. Forensic anthro. Length/weight determins age, epiphyses
Human osteology
the study of the human structure, function, and evolution of the skeleton.
Determination of sex, age
sciatic notch, epiphyses, sub pubic angle
determine whether sharp, force blunt force, or gunshot injury occurred near the time of death of an individual
study of spores and pollen, forensic palynology used for evidence at crime scene, can see climate change, type of vegetation that used to be, when testing parts of strata
Sciatic notch
where leg tendons/muscles connect into pelvis-Female sciatic notches are wider than those of males, and there are also shape differences between the sexes In males, the greater sciatic notch tends to be narrow and U-shaped. In females, it is comparatively open, with a lower width-to-depth ratio. The sciatic notch has been widely used as a sexing criterion in modern humans
Manner of death
sharp force, blunt force, gunshot, natural causes
Gloger’s Rule
Gloger’s rule states that within the same species, there is a tendency for more heavily pigmented populations to be located toward the equator and for lighter populations to be farther from it
Facial reconstruction
Facial reconstruction is a method used in forensic anthropology to aid in the identification of skeletal remains. The reproduction of the facial features of an individual is based upon the average soft tissue thicknesses over various anatomical sites of the skull and jaws
Pubic symphysis
the joint at the front of the pelvis see above images
Australopithecus africanus
a fossil hominid species from South Africa, 3-2.3 mya, similar to A. afarensis and may be direct evolutionary descendant of the earlier species, it retained the chimp sized brain and was fully bidedal
H. neandertalensis
species form Europe and south-east Asia, 225,000-36,000 ya. Modern human brain size, retained primitive features like brow ridges, prognathism and postorbital constriction.
the geographical time period, 1.6 mya- 10,000 ya, characterized by a series of glacial advances and retreats