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72 Cards in this Set

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support
structural support, attachment of soft tissues, holds organs
protection
protects vital organs (ribs-lungs and heart)
movement/leverage
framework for muscle attachment, allows movement at the joints
mineral and lipid (fat)storage
stores calcuim and phosphate
blood cell formation
blood cells are produced in reb bone marrow, in children this occurs in long bones, in adults in the ribs, spleen and portions of the flat bones of skull
long bones
the limb bones as well as finger and toe bones
short bones
the blocky,often cube-shaped bones of the wrist and ankle, as well as sesamoid bones (the form within a tendon, such as a patella)
flat bones
those of the cranium, should, pelvis and rib cage
irregular bones
the vertebrae, facial bones and some bones of the wist and ankle
axial skeleton
first to develop, includes skull, vertebral column, rib cage, sternum and hyoid
appendicular skeleton
develops later, consists of limb bones and thier connectoins to the axial skeleton (pelvic and pectoral girdles)
diaphysis
the shaft, or main portion of the bone
epiphyses
portions at the extremities or ends of the bone
articular cartilage
a cartilageinous layer convering the epiphyseal ends
metaphysis
the region in a mate bone where the diaphysis meets the epiphysis, in growing bone, it is where calcified cartilage is replaced by bone
periosteum
the connective tissue covering bone inplaces whjere there is no articular cartilage, consists of an outer fibrous layer of connective tissue with blood vessels, lymph vessels, and nerves that pass into bone and an inner layer that is involved with the production of new bone for growth and repair
medullary cavity
the space along the inside of the diaphysis that contains yellow marrow (in adults) consisting mostly of fat cells and some scattered blood cells
midsagittal or median plane
divides the body into equal left and right halves
coronal and frontal planes
divides the body into front and back portions
transverse or horizontal planes
divides the body into upper and lower parts
medial
closer to the midline, or the median plane
lateral
farther from the midline, or the median plane
anterior
toward the front
posterior
toward the back
superior
above
inferior
below
superficial
near the body's surface
deep
away from the body's surface, internal
proximal
closer to the attachment of the limb to trunk of body (nearer the hip or shoulder)
distal
farther from the attachemnt of the limb to trunk of body (away from the hip or shoulder)
ventral
closer to the belly
dorsal
closer to the back
(skull) frontal
the forehead bone. is a single bone whose lower margins are occupied largely by the orbits or eye sockets
(skull) parietals
these paired bones articulagte with the frontal bone, they make up the walls of the skull, lmeeting at the suture that runs in the midsagittal plane on the top of the head
(skull) temporals
the pair of bones on sides of head, houses the "ear hoes" and provides articulation for the mandible (lower jaw)
(skull) occipital
the midline bone at back of the skull, houses the large hoe (forament magnum) at the base of the skull for passage of spinal cord
(skull) maxilla
these paired bones make up much of the face between the orbits and the mouth
(skull) zygomatics
these are the paired cheek bones
(skull) nasals
these small, paired bones lie just superior to the nasal opening, between the orbits
(skull)ethmoid
a single bone entirely within the skull, it can be seen from the frontal view (at the back of the orbit, medial side) or lateral view (just posterior to lacrimals in orbits) or the superior view with the top of skull removed
(skull) sphenoid
the large, butterfly-shaped single bone is mostly within skull, but portions are visible laterally
(skull)lacrimals
small, delicate, paired bones just inside the rim of the orbits, houses canal for tear ducts
(skull) mandible
lower jaw (single bone after about one year of age)
(skull) inferior nasal conchae
small, curved bones, one on each side within nasal opening
(skull) palatine
small, pared bones just posterior to bony palate (of the maxillae)
(skull)vomer
single midline bone visible just posterior to palatine
(sutures) sagittal
seperates the two parietal bones;along the midsagittal plane
(sutures) coronal
separates the frontal from the two parietal bones
(sutures) squamosal
seperates the parietal from the temporal bone
(sutures) lambdoidal
separating the parietal bones from the occipital bone.
(sutures)metopic
seperates the two halves of the frontal bone until approximately 2 years of age in humans; in most mammals and in some primates it is retained through life.
heterodont dentition
teeth specialized for different functions.
dental formula
2/2 1/1 2/2 3/3
process
general term for an area that protrudes on bone
condyle
large, rounded articular projection or surface dome-shaped articular projection
(muscle attachment) turbercle
small rounded process
(muscle attachment)tuberosity
large rounded, rough process
(muscle attachment)trochanter
large blunt process (only on femur)
(muscle attachment)ridge
raised, elongated area of bone
(muscle attachment)torus
thickened ridge
(muscle attachment)crest
relatively sharp, narrow ridge
(muscle attachment)linea or line
raised, elongated area that is not as marked as a ridge or a crest
(muscle attachment)spine
sharp slender projection
(muscle attachment)epicondyle
prominence above a condyle
(concave area of bone)fissure
narrow, crack-like opening
(concave area of bone)foramen
holes for blood vessels and nerves to pass through
(concave area of bone) meatus
short canal
(concave area of bone) sulcus
furrow-like depression
(concave area of bone) fossa
dug-out area, depression
(concave area of bone)notch
indentation
facet
a smooth, flat surface for articulation; typically where little movement occurs
hyoid bone
the bony support for the larynx or voice box.