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62 Cards in this Set

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Another name for Human Paleontology
paleoanthropology
5 Types of Anthropology
Biological Anthropology
Archaeology
Linguistics
Ethonology
Types of Biological Anthropology
Human Paleontology
Human Variation
population biology
epidemiology
Another Name for Human Paleontology
paleoanthropology
Human Paleontology/paleoanthropology
uses specific fossils (good to have disturbed sites)
Human Variation
genetics and variation of genetic traits
population biology
environment affects on humans
epidemiology
the study of how different diseases affect different cultures, and why
Archaeology
Learn through remains (sites (undisturbed areas)), before written languages (generally)
Another name for Linguistics
Anthropological Linguistics
Historical Linguistics
development (changes) and emergence of languages over time
Structural Linguistics
How languages differ, especially in pronunciation or construction
sociolinguistics
How language is used in a social context. The way certain things are said.
How long have written languages existed?
5,000 years about
Parts of Linguistics/Anthropological Linguistics
Historical Linguistics, Structural Linguistics, sociolinguistics
What is another name for Ethnology?
Cultural Anthropology
What are examples of practitioners of Ethnology?
Ethnohistorians, Ethnographers
Field Methods of Anthropology?
Random Sampling, Statistics, Ethnography, Within Culture Comparison, Regional Culture Comparison, Cross-Cultural Comparison, Historical Research, Excavation
Operational Definition
The procedure/method of how a variable is measured.
Gloger's Rule
For birds and mammals, the closer they are to harmful UV rays the more melanin that their skin will have.
Allen's Rule
Longer protruding limbs in hotter areas, because increased surface area to cool.
How long ago did Primates Evolve from other Mammals?
Undisputedly, 55 mya. With dispute, there could be primates that emerged 65 mya.
Artifact Dating Techniques
Stratigraphy, Absolute dating
Stratigraphy
Looking at the layers in which artifacts/ecnofacts/tools/features were found.
Types of absolute dating
Carbon-14 and Ar-k
DNA Clock
Assuming constant rate of protein change/modification, difference in proteins can determine how long ago a species was made
Genetic Drift
Wright Effect (random), Founder Effect (first populators of an area will have the most effect on genes that can be transferred)
Natural Selection
The most fit traits will proliferate, while unfit traits will die out. Naturally, the most suited to live will be selected
Mutation
Random incorrect copying. Biggest source of variation.
Gene Flow
A normalizing effect. In a geographic area, genes/traits will be shared amongst the organisms.
Phenotype
Physical Characteristic
Genotype
DNA declaration of a trait (not all genotypes show up as a phenotype)
Cline
Appearance of a gene from one side of a geographic area to the other side of a geographic area
Primatologists
Anthropologists, psychologists, biologists specializing in study of primates
All Anthropoids
Platyrrhines (New World Monkeys)
callitrichids (marmosets and tamarins)
cebids (all other New World Monkeys)
Catarrhines (New World Apes)
Colobine Monkeys
Cercopithecine Monkeys
Hominoids
Gibbons and Siamangs
Orangutans
Gorillas
Chimpanzees
Hominoids
Features of Anthropoids
rounded brain cases, non-muzzle faces, dexterous hands, non-mobile ears
Another name for Platyrrhines
New World Monkeys
Features of Platyrrhines
Some prehensile tails
3 molars
no ear tube through skull
broad nose facing outwards
Another name for callitrichids
marmosets and tamarins
Features of callitrichids
Small sized, claws (no nails), twin birthing, Monogamy or plyandry, insect eaters, small bodies, generally don't leave trees
cebid monkeys are ...
all other New World Monkeys
Features of cebids
size >callitrichids, single births, 4 years of independence at birth, some vegetable diets but mostly fruit eaters, sometimes patriarch/matriarch sometimes large groups
Another name for Catarrhines
Old world primates
Features of Catarrhines
More closely related to humans, narrow nose, nostrils facing downwards, two premolars, ear tubes in skull
Another name of cercopithecoids
Old World Monkeys
Features of cercopithecoids
in very diverse climates, same number of teeth as apes and humans
All Catarrhines
cercopithecoids (old world monkeys)
colobine monkeys
cercopithecine monkeys
hominoids
gibbons and siamangs
orangutans
gorillas
chimpanzees
hominoids
All Platyrrhines
callatrichids (marmosets and taraminds)
cebids (all other new world monkeys)
All cercopithecoids
colobine monkeys
cercopithecine monkeys
colobine monkeys
crazy colored babies, mothers allow social mothering, graphically based male-dominance, less fruit dependent than cercopethecines
cercopithecine monkeys
many many terrestrial species, sexual dimorphism (males are larger, bigger canines, and agressive), more fruit dependent than colobines, ischial callosities, food pouches in cheeks, genetic relatedness plays large role in societal alliances
All Hominoids
Gibbons and Siamangs
Orangutans
Gorillas
Chimpanzees
Hominids
Features of Hominoids
large cerebral cortex (integrate data), no tails, flexible arm joints, long strong hands, flat rounded molars, 'y-5' pattern (5 cusps & groove opening toward cheeck), large canine teeth and gap called diastema (but not in hominid)
Gibbons and Siamangs
Lesser ape, gibbon size < siamang size, no sexual dimorphism, territorial (chase off young after maturation, sings to advertise territory)
Orangutans
sexual dimorphism (males twice as large as females, large cheek pads, throat pouches, long hair), arboreal, fruit eaters, distinct local cultures (group size determined by predators & food)
Gorillas
opposite most ape diets, sexual dimorphism (males twice as large as females), largest of surviving apes, knuckle walking (thickly padded middle joints), younger = better climber, silverback is boss (main protector, decider of migration), ground nests
Chimpanzee
bonobos more gregarious, female centered groups, tree nests, ≈ no sexual dimorphism (canines of males are larger though), hunters of even larger mammals (esp. when other food scarce), males hunt food social gather afterwards where others beg for food (9+ hours), grooming/toolmaking/maturation/moving not climate induced (possibly cultural)
Hominids
5-6 mya chimps and apes diverged.
brachiation
travel through trees, hand over hand through trees
prehensile
grasping tail
bipedalism
walking on two feet
knuckle walking
how chimps and apes walk on all fours