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40 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
the study of humankind in all times and places
holistic perspective
a fundamental principle of anthropology, that the various parts of human culture and biology must be viewed in the broadest possible context in order to understand their interconnections and interdependence
culture bound
theories about the world and reality based on the assumptions and values of one's own culture
applied anthropology
the use of anthropological knowledge and methods to solve practical problems, often for a specific client
physical anthropology
also known as biological anthropology. they systematic study of humans as biological organisms.
molecular anthropology
a branch of biological anthropology that uses genetic and biochemical techniques to test hypotheses about human evolution, adaptation, and variation.
the study of the origins and predecessors of the present human species.
focusing on the interaction of biology and culture
the study of living and fossil primates
forensic anthropology
subfield of applied physical anthropology that specializes in the identification of human skeletal remains for legal purposes
the study of human cultures through the recovery and analysis of material remains and environmental data
cultural resource management
a branch of archeology that is concerned with survey and/or excavation of archaeological and historical remains threatened by construction or development and policy surrounding protection of cultural resources
linguistic anthropology
the study of human languages
cultural anthropology
also know as social or sociocultural anthropology. the study of customary patterns in human behavior, though, and feelings. it focuses on humans as culture-producing and culture-reproducing creatures.
the (often unconscious) standards by which societies- structured groups of people- operate. these standards are socially learned, rather than acquired through biological inheritance.
a detailed description of a particular culture primarily based on fieldwork
the term anthropologists use for on-location research
participant observation
in ethnography, the technique of learning a people's culture through social participation and personal observation within the community being studied, as well as interviews and discussion with individual members of the group over an extended period of time.
the study and analysis of different cultures from a comparative or historical point of view, utilizing ethnographic accounts and developing anthropological theories that help explain why certain important differences or similarities occur among groups.
medical anthropology
a specialization in anthropology that brings theoretical and applied approaches from cultural and biological anthropology to the study of human health and disease.
based on observations of the world rather than on intuition or faith
a tentative explanation of the relation between certain phenomena
in science, an explanation of natural phenomena, supported by a reliable body of data
worldwide interconnectedness, evidenced in global movements of natural resources, trade goods, human labor, finance capital, information, and infectious diseases.
a conventional term used to refer to the period of time before the appearance of written records. does not deny the existence of history, merely of written history.
any object fashioned or altered by humans
material culture
the durable aspects of culture such as tools, structures, and art
the preserved remains of plants and animals that lived in the past
soil marks
stains that show up on the surface of recently plowed fields that reveal an archaeological site
a refuse or garbage disposal area in an archaeological site
grid system
a system for recording data in three dimensions from an archaeological excavation
datum point
the starting, or reference, point for a grid system
an archaeological technique employed to recover very tiny objects by immersion of soil samples in water to separate heavy from light particles.
layered; said of archaeological sites where the remains lie in layers, one upon another
preserved fecal material providing evidence of the diet and health of past organisms
a cast of the inside of a skull; helps determine the size and shape of the brain
polymerase chain reaction (PCR)
a technique for amplifying or creating multiple copies of fragments of DNA so that it can be studied in the laboratory
the archaeological study of human remains emphasizing the preservation of cultural and social processes in the skeleton
relative dating
in archeology and paleoanthropology, designating an event, object, or fossil as being older or younger than another
absolute or chronometric dating
in archeology and paleoanthropology, dates for archaeological materials based on solar years, centuries, or other units of absolute time.