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63 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Holistic
Emphasis on all aspects of the human experience, Biological, Historical, Contempoary, Religious, Economic, Political, and Liguistic.
Four Subfields
Linguistic, Biological, Economic, Archaeological, and Cultural
Middens
a mound or deposit containing shells, animal bones, and other refuse that inidcates the site of a human settlement.
Excavation
hole or cavity made by excavating
Ethnography
branch of anthropology dealing with the scientific description of individual cultures
Ethnology
analyzes culture
Linguistic Anthropology
relationship between language and culture, how they impact eachother
Biological Anthropology
study of the relationship between biology and culture, how culture and biology impacted human evolution
Paleoanthropology
study of human evolution as revealed by the fossil record
Primatology
study of primate biology, evolution, behavior and social life
Participant Observation
to particpate in a given culture and observe
Genealogical Method
study of how people in a particular society are related to eachother, how they determine family membership
Questionairre
questions submited for replies that can be anayzed for usable information
Ethnocentrism
the belief in the inherent superiority of one's own ethnic group or culture
Cultural Relativism
the view that ethical and moral standards are relative to what a particular society or culture belives to be good or bad
Adaptive Advantage
language helped humans evolve
Language
a bodyh of words and the systems for their use common to a people who are of the same community or nation
Productivity
having the power of produciong, produciong readily or abundantly
Displacement
the act of displacing, the state of being displaced
Symbol
something used for or regarded as representing something else
Call Systems
vocal calls found naturally in the wild, used by primates
Language Structures
Phonemes, Morphemes, Lexicon, Syntax
Phoneme
sounds that make up a language, not individual letters
Morphemes
combination of phonemes, or words
Lexicon
The vocabulary of a particular language, field, social class, person, etc.
Syntax
grammatical arrangement of words in sentences
Grammar
the rules for standard use of words
Descriptive Linguistics
Interested in the structure of language, scientific study of a spoken language
Socioloinguistics
study of a language as it functions in society
Code Switching
alternate use of two or more languages or varieties of language
Egalitarian
person who believes in the equality of all people
Consensus
general agreement or accord inside a community
Pantriabl Sodality
developed in native american tribes living on the plains often called warrior societies
Age Set
group containing all the men or women born during a certain time span
Age Gender
series of life stages move through grades with age set, perform ritual when changing sets
Subsistence Strategy
form of economic production, foraging, horticulture, agricultre, and pastoralism
Economic Anthropology
understand economic behavior in terms of local cultural beliefs
Foraging/Hunting and Gathering
live in small social units called bands, organized kinship, and mobile
Horticulture
slash and burn cultivation, shifting cultivation, using an area of land until no longer usable then moving to a new location
Shifting Cultivation
agricultural system in which a person creates a piece of land with another peice of land and uses it and abandons it a short while later
Agriculture
the production of crops, livestock, or poultry
Cultivation Continuum
increase in pop. size, relaince on one staple crop
Pastoralism
economies focused around domesticated animals, herders, cattle, sheep, goats, camels, yaks, use animals for food. Do not rely on herders
Pastoral Nomadism
farming system where animals are taken to diferent locations in order to find fresh pastures
Transhumance
the seasonal migration of livestock, and the people who tend them, between lowlands and adjacent mountains
Reciprcocity
a mutual or cooperative interchange of favors or privledges
Redistribution
an economic theory or policy that advocates reducing inequalities in the distribution of wealth
Generalized Reciprocity
type of exchange where someone gives another person a gift
Balanced Reciprocity
one person gives a gift to someone, giver expects nothing in return
Negative Reciprocity
taking something without giving in return
Nuclear Family
a family unit consisting of parents and children
Extended Family
consists of parents, children, and other close relatives, often living in close proximity.
Expanded Family
households that include non nuclear relatives
Descent Groups
another way of organizing kinship, social unit based on common ancestry
Unilineal Descent
a system of determining descent groups in which one belongs to one's father or mother's lineage
Matrilineal Descent
a system to which one belongs to a mother's lineage
Patrilineal Descent
a system in which one belongs to one's father's lineage
Clan
a group of people of common descent
Lineage
lineal descent from an ancestor
Bilateral Descent
system of family lineage in which the relatives on the mother's side are equally important for emotional ties for transfer of property or wealth
Lineal
being the direct line, as a descendant or ancestor
Bifurcate Merging
kinship system used to define family
Generational
the entire body of an individuals born and living at about the same time