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30 Cards in this Set

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primates
the group o mammals that includes lemurs, lorises, tarsiers, monkeys, apes, and humans.
mammals
the class of vertebrate animals distinguished by bodies covered with fur, self-regulating temperature, and in females milk-producing mammary glands.
species
the smallest working unit in the system of classification. among living organisms, species are populations or groups of populations capable of interbreeding and producing fertile viable offspring.
genus, genera (plural)
in the system of plant and animal classification, a group of like species.
taxonomy
the science of classification
analogies
in biology, structures possessed by different organisms that are superficially similar due to similar function; without sharing a common developmental pathway or structure.
homologies
in biology, structures possessed by two different organisms that arises in similar fashion and pass through similar stages during embryonic development though they may possess different functions.
natural selection
the evolutionary process through which factors in the environment exert pressure, favoring some individuals over others to produce the next generation.
genes
portions of DNA molecules that direct the synthesis of specific proteins
law of segregation
the mendelian principle that variants of genes for a particular trait retain their separate identities through the generations
law of independent assortment
the mendelian principle that genes controlling different traits are inherited independently of one another
chromosomes
in the cell nucleus, the structures visible during cellular division containing long strands of DNA combined with a protein
DNA
deoxyribonucleic acid. the genetic material consisting of a complex molecule whose base structure directs the synthesis of proteins.
alleles
alternate forms of a single gene
genome
the complete structure sequence of DNA for a species
genome
the complete structure sequence of DNA for a species
mitosis
a kind of cell division that produces new cells having exactly the same number of chromosome pairs, and hence copies of genes, as the parent cell.
meiosis
a kind of cell division that produces the sex cells, each of which has half the number of chromosomes found in other cells of the organism.
homozygous
refers to a chromosome pair that bears identical allels for a single gene
heterozygous
refers to a chromosome pair that bears different allels for a single gene
genotype
the allels possessed for a particular trait
phenotype
the observable or testable appearance of an organism that may or may not reflect a particular genotype due to the variable expression of dominant and recessive allels.
dominance
the ability of one allele for a trait to mask the presence of another allele.
recessive
an allele for a trait whose expression is masked by the presence of a dominant allele.
hemoglobin
the protein that carries oxygen in the red blood cells
polygenetic inheritance
when two or more genes contribute to the phenotypic expression of single character
population
in biology a group of similar individuals that can and do interbreed
gene pool
all the genetic variants possessed by members of a population
evolution
changes in allele frequencies in populations. also known as microevolution.
mutation
chance alteration of genetic material that produces new variation