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35 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
cultural anthropology
similarities/differences in cultures, meanings of daily life
1 of 4 subfields of anthropology
system of meanings about the nature of experiences that are shared by a people and passes on from 1 generation to another (shared beliefs, learned, tacit)
ethnocentric fallacy
mistaken notion that the beliefs and behaviors of other cultures can be judged from the perspective of one's own culture (viewing one culture as superior)
tendency to judge the beliefs and behaviors of other cultures from the perspective of one's own culture
attempt to understand the beliefs and behaviors of other cultures in terms of the culture in which they are found (flipside of ethnocentrism)
relativistic fallacy
idea that it is impossible to make moral judgements about the beliefs and behaviors of members of other cultures, not judge any behavior as good or bad
ethnographic method
immersion of researchers in the lives and cultures of the peoples they are trying to understand in order to comprehend the meanings these people ascribe to their existence
segmentary social system
organization of large groups into smaller units embedded in larger units; thus households combine into villages, etc.
participant observation
active participation of a researcher or observer in the lives of those being studied
cultural text
way of thinking about culture as a text of significant symbols-words, gestures, drawings, natrual objects- that carry meaning
style of living characterized by permanent or semipermanent settlements
idea that human history is the story of a steady advance from a life dependent on the whims of nature to a life of control and domination over natural forces
cultural change
change in meanings taht a people ascribe to experience and changes in their way of life
slash and burn (swidden) agriculture
form of cultivation in which forests are cleared by burning trees and brush, and crops are planted among the ashes of the cleared ground
form of society characterized by a hierarchical ranking of people and centralized political control
irrigation agriculture
replaced slash and burn agriculture (10x more labor for this than swidden)
population density
number of people living in a given area
"putting out" system
means of production, common in the 16th and 17th centuries and surviving today, in which a manufacturer or merchant supplies the materials and sometimes the tolls to workers, who produce the goods in their own homes
factory system
system of production characterized by the concentration of labor and machines in specific places. (associated w/ industrial revolution)
economic development
increase in level of technology, std of living of a population. also its an ideology based on
1. economic growth and development is the solution to nat'l as well as global problems
2. global economic integration will contributre to solving global ecological and social problems
3. foreign assistance to underdeveloped countries will make things better
World Bank
functions as a lending institution created after wwII to nations largely for projects related to economic development
International Monetary Fund (IMF)
formed to regulate currency transactions b/w countries, but now makes loans and regualtes the economies of lending countries
pathogen (vector)
infectious agent such as a bacteria or a virus that can cause disease
interpersonal theory of disease
view of disease in which it is assumed that illness is caused by tensions or conflicts in social relations
agroecological approach
agricultural methods that incorporate indigenous practices of food production along w/ contemporary agricultural research yet preserve the environment
ethnocide/ genocide
attempt to destroy culture of a people/ attempt to exterminate a people
market externalities
costs or benefits of economic transactions that are not included in prices. these may include environmental, social or political consequences of market transactions
Lewis Henry Morgan
labeled 3 stages of development
1. savagery
2. barbarism
3. civilization
(some societies evolved into civilization)
Clifford Gertz
know for the article on Balinese Cockfight/ football
(text about social status)
Franz Boas
"Father of US Anthropology"
4 subfields of Anthropology
cultural, physcial (biological), archaelogy, linguistic
types of symbols
(arbitrary, conventional, non-arbitrary, non-verbal)
arbitrary: no natural connection b/w x and y (ex: language)
conventional: socially agreed upon (may not seem natural)
non-arbitrary: footsteps on beach- shows someone was there
non-verbal: gestures, objects
description and analysis of a culture through direct firsthand experience in a field research setting; write-up
Emic approach
-native insider's perspective
-ask community members for their explanations, interpretations, concepts and categories
ex: people that are part of the culture; sickness caused by another,witchcraft, local explanation
Etic approach
-outsider's perspective
-applies theories, concepts and ideas from science
ex: anthropologists perspective
ex2: colds caused by germs, pathogens, scientific explanation