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113 Cards in this Set

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What is culture?
Complex whole which includes knowledge, beliefs, arts, morals, law, customs, and any other capabilities and habits acquired by man as a member of society.
Culture includes a lot of things
What are characteristics of culture?
Culture can be learned directly or indirectly
Culture is shared through extragenetic transmission
Culture is symbolic, it envolves concepts, generalization, abstractions, assumptions, and ideas
Culture can be adaptive and maladaptive
Culture sometimes is realized through the use of artifacts
There are five different characteristics
How is culture learned?
Directly or indirectly
How is culture shared?
Through extragenetc transmission
Culture is symbolic.....what does it involve?
There are five
Is culture symbolic?
Can culture be adapted?
Yes, it can aslo be maladaptive
How is culutre sometimes realized?
Through the use of artifacts
What are the three different levels of culture?
What is enculturation?
The process by which culture is acquired and transmitted across generations
Grandma, Mom, Me
How can every person begin to learn culture?
Conciously and unconciously when interacting with others
How can culture be taught directly?
"Thank you" or elbows on the table
How can culture be taught indirectly?
What is the psychic unity of humans?
Culture is shared through extragenetic transmission
It is shared among members of groups
It is transmitted from one member to another extragenetically, without genetic influence
It is transmitted in society by observating, listening, talking, and interacting
What are symblos?
Something verbal or nonverbal within a specific culture that stand for something else
There is no natural or obvious connection between the symbol and what it symbolizes
Symbols are usually linguistic
Some are nonverball
What is international culture?
Culture traits that extend beyond and across national boundries. Becuase culture is transmitted by learning rather than genetic components, cultural tairs can spread through borrowing or diffusing from one group to another.
What is national culture?
Beliefs, values, behavioral patterns, by citizens of the same nation
What is subculture?
Different symbol-based patterns and traditions associated with specific groups in the same complex society
What are the different mechanisms that cause culture to change?
Diffusion (Direct, Forced, and Indirect)
Indenpendent Invention
There are five
What is diffusion?
The mechanism in which cultural traits spread from one group to another
What is direct diffusion?
Two cultures trade, intermarry, or wage war on one another
What is forced diffusion?
When one culture subjugates another and imposes it's customs on the dominated group
What is indirect diffusion?
When culture moves from A to C through B without any firsthand contact between A and C
What is acculturation?
The exchange of cultural traits that result when groups have continous first hand contact, with aculturation, parts of the cultures change, but each group remains distinct
What is indenpendent invention?
The procees by which humans innovate, creatively finding solutions to problems. Faced with comparable problems and challanges, people in different cultures have innovated and changed in similar ways
What is convergence?
Human groups become more similar culturally by living and adapting to similar environmental circumstances

- Convergence does no require contact between different human groups -
What is globalizaton?
The term encompasses a series of processes, including diffusion and acculturation, working to promote change in a word in which nations and people are interlinked and mutually dependent
What are some forces of globalization?
International commerce
Travel and tourism
Transitional migration
The Media
What are the two research tools used to study culture?
Ethnographic Techniques
Survey Research
What are ethnographic techniques?
Techniques used to study small-scale societeis
What are survey instruments?
Techniques used to study large, complex and literate societies
What is participant observation?
It relies on the cultivation of personal relationships with local informants as a way of learning about a culture, and involves both observing and participating in the social life of a group.
What is naturalistic observation?
Observing in natural habitat
What is religion?
A set of beliefs and rituals concerned with teh supernatural beings and powers
What is supernatural?
That which lies beyond our imagination or perception of our senses
What are the catagories of the supernatural?
Gods and godesses
Ancestral Spirits
What are Gods and Godesses?
The great and more remote beings that thought to control the universe. When more then one is recognizable, known as polytheism.
What is pantheon?
The several Gods and Godesses of a people.
Where are Gods and Godesses popular?
Non-western cultures
How do societies recognize Gods or Godesses?
How men and women relate to eachother in everyday life
What are ancestral spirits?
Spirits of deceased ancestors
What do ancestoral spirits do?
They watch their descendents
They punish them when they do no behave, and bless them on important endeavors like hunting, gardening, pregnancy, and warfare
What is an example of an ancestoral believing group?
What are ghosts?
Spirits of deceased humans
What is animism?
A belief that nature is animated by distinct personalized spirit beings sperable form physical bodies

Souls and ghosts are thought to inhabit humans and animals

Also, they are thought to dwell in human made artifacts, plants, stones, mountains, wells, and other natural artifacts

One of the most widespread beliefs

It is typical among those societies who see themselves as part of nature, not superior to it
What is animatism?
The belief of certain controllers in supernatural forces, these forces are inanimate and impersonal.
Who introduced the term animatism?
R.R. Marett
What is a ritual?
Means through which people relate to the supernatural. It does help people to relieve social tensions and strengthens group rituals
What is the rite of passage?
Markes important phrases in individuals lives such as birth, marriage, and death
What is the rite of intensification?
Rituals that take place during a time of crisis of the group and serve to bind them together
What is magic?
Involves human attempts to effect, change, or manipulate events to the practioners advantage
Why is magic preformed?
To give a sense of control over the supernatural powers
What is sorcery?
Same as magic, but usually involves evil porpuses
What is the adaptive basis of religion?
Religion provides a sense of right and wrong, good and evil

It provides security and meaning to the world

It strengthens our ability to cope with various crisis

Reaffirms a sense of community
What is secularization?
The replacement of religious beliefs by non-religious ones
What is monothestic?
Believe in just one God
What do monothestics beleive about illness?
It's naturalsitc
What is kinship?
A system that recognizes biological and or familial relationships between people of a society
What is bilateral (bilineal)?
A kinship system in which an individual is a member of both parents' descent lines, the individual is the product of both lines
What is unilaterial (unilineal)?
An individual belongs to only one side of the family
What is matrilineal?
Unilineal descent through women, where individuals become members in their mother's group at birth and stay like that throught life

15% of cultures practice this
What is patrilineal?
Descent through men, individuals become members of their fathers group since birth until death

Practiced in 44% of societies

Males dominate power and property

Girls are raised for other families
What is family of orientation?
The family in which a person is born and raised
What is a family of procreation?
The family that is formed when one marries and has children
What is a nuclear family?
A family/household consisting of two parents and their legal children
What is an extended family?
A family that includes at least three or more generations
What is a blended family?
The bringing together of two people, one of them, at least, was married before
What are some functions of the family?
Enables new babies to survive and become adults
Regulates sexual activity of it's members
Transmits cultural traits to the children to become satisfactory socialized into the norms and values of society
Provides economic support for others members within it
Satisfies the emotional needs of their members for both love and security
Organizes Labor
Provides it's members with the sense of place in their society
What are the types of relative?
Fictive Kin
What are lineal relatives?
An ancestor or descendant, anyone on the direct line descent that leads to and from an ego
What are collateral relatives?
All other kin, they include nieces, siblings, nephews, aunts, uncles, and cousins
What are affinals?
Relatives by marriage, "in laws"
What are fictive kin?
Extra fimilial kin who provide mutual aid and support "god parents"
What is marriage?
A union between a man and a woman who have legitimate children
There is no universal defination
Why is there no universla defination of marriage?
Same-sex marriage
What can marriage accomplish?
Establishes legitimate parents for children
Give either or both spouses a monopoly in the sexuality of the other
Give either or both spouses rights to teh labor of other
Give both spouses rights over eachothers property
Establish a joint fund property for he benefit of the children
Establishes a "relationship of affinity" between spouses and their relatives
What is incest?
Incest refers to sexual relations with someone considered to be a close relative. All cultures have taboo against it
What is iinstinctive horror?
Homospaiens has a genetically programmed disgust toward inscest
What are threee theoires that explain incest taboo?
Instinctive horror
Biological Degeneration
Bronislaw Malinowski's Theory
What is biological degeneration?
Taboo emerged becasue members of early homo noticed that abnormal offspring were born from instestous unions
What is Bronislaw Malinowski's Theory?
Children try to express their sexual feelings as they grow up with memebers of their nuclear family because of affection. Becuase sex is powerful, it could destroy the family and damage family ties. Malinowski believed that incest taoo originated to prevent establishing sexual relationships within the family and direct sexual feelings outside it to avoid destroying it.
What are the two marriage systems?
Endogamy and Exogamy
What is endogamy?
Practice of marrying within a social group becuase of a social norm that encourages or requires it
What is village endogamy?
Marrying "girl next door" becuase of frequent personal contact
What is linage endogamy?
Marrying between members of the same lineage
What is caste endogamy?
Marriage between men and women from the same caste of birth to maintain their heredity lines
What is class endogamy?
Money and education
What is exogamy?
Marrying outside a specified group of people to which one belongs
What are the two marriage forms?
What is monogamy?
Marriage with only one spouse
Why is polygamy?
Marriage with lots of spouses
What is polygyny?
One man and lots of women
What is polyandry?
One woman lots of men
What is biological determinism?
Everything determined by genes
What is cultural determinism?
Only biology comes from genes, everything else from other places
What is sexual dimorphism?
Physical differences between the sexes of species
What are gender roles defined as?
Tasks and activities that a culture assign to sexes
What are the types of interviews?
What are structured interviews?
The ethnographer talks face to face with local respondents using a series of questions and tasks and writes down the answers
What are unstructured interviews?
Informal, free flowing conversation between the ethnogrpaher and local respondents
What are life histories?
Collect life experiences of key respondents whose life is unusually interesting
What is time allocated analysis?
Assessing how much time is spent on various activities by the people under the study
What is genealogy?
A well-established ethnogrpahic technique that traces "family tree" and degrees of relationships using nations and symbols
What are two key cultural consultants?
Video recording
Longitudional research
What are key cultural consultants?
In every single culture, there are people who can provide the most complete or useful information abot particular aspects of life
What is video recording?
It is used to document social activities unobtrusively
What is longitudional research?
Long-term study of culture based on repeated use of many years
What is population sampling?
Seeking and studying a small and representative portion of the larger society
What is a questionnaire?
The procedure that tends to be more indirect and impersonal
What are the key features of anthropology for business?
Cross-cultural expertise
Focusing on cultural diversity
How can anthropologists help in businesses?
Product design
Employee Training
Andertising the product
What is product design?
Using research tools, anthropologists try to understand how people use computer products
Anthropologists will work with engineers to design products which are easy to use
Product design is sensative to other cultures
What is employee training?
Just talk about it