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55 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Allometry
Study of the change in proportion of various body parts as a consequence of different growth rates
Encephalization quotient
Is a measure of how much extra brain an organism(or species) has beyond that required for it's body size (observed/expected)
Taphonomy
Study of what happens to plants and animals after death
What kind of rock are fossils found in?
Sedimentary Rock
What are the four dating types?
Direct vs. Indirect
Absolute vs Relative
What can fossils tell us?
Age
Paleoenvironmental indirators
Traces of Behavior
Direct dating involves
Dating material of interest directly
e.g. teeth, bones, pigment fossil
Indirect dating involves?
Date layers above and below
Absolute dating involves?
Radioisotopic dating
e.g. Radio Carbon Dating, Th-230, Amino Acid Racemization, Electrospin + Luminescence, Fission track, Argon - Argon
Relative Dating involves?
Relative to other sites/horizons
e.g. Faunal Correlation, Paleomagnetism
Paleomagnetic dating
Earth changes polarities rocks shift directions when the cool to the correct temperatures
Order of monkeys
Prostimigans - New world Monkeys - Old world monkeys - Lesser apes - Great Apes - Great ape - Humans
Primate traits
Forward faces - post orbital bar (fully enclosed eye socket) - relatively large cranial vault - reduced snout - versatile dentition - divergent big toes + thumbs - grasping hand + feet - Nails instead of Claws - Large Bodies - Larger Brains - mostly diurnal - Aboreal and terrestrial species
Primate Origins
Needed to get insects on branches - fruit on branches - grasping/leaping locomotion - Grasping to exploit food and insects - Larger Bodies
New world monkey origins
To south America by...
1. south from North America
2 West from africa through water
3. South to antarctica then up
4. Originated there
What's a Lumper
Puts a lot of species together
Splitter
thinks all differences are a new species
Bipedal adaptations
Cranial
Vertebral Column
Pelvis
Femur
knee
ankle and foot
Body proportions
What changed with the cranial?
Foramen Magnum - Base not back
What changed with the vertebral column?
Lumbar Lordosis - S bend
What changed with the Pelvis?
Saccrum - became wider
Llium Bones - longer/wider
Tilted Pelvis
What changed with the Femur?
Tilted Pelvis
Femur angles for hips isn't straight down
what changed with the knee
Angled to retrieve Femur
What changed with the ankle and foot?
Significantly less curve on feet doesn't grasp anymore so no longer hand shaped.... foot shaped
Body proportions?
Allometry - Legs are longer for Bipedal. Arms shorter. Larger head in humans for larger more complex thinking process
Why go Bipedal?
Food Gathering
Thermoregulation - less solar radiation
Tracking herds - hunting
Larger group size
Predator Avoidance - survival
free use of hands - gather food and walk
Energy efficient when it comes to walking
Traits of Autralopithicus
Bipedal
Still adept in trees
small bodies
Teeth, jaws skull intermediate between apes and humans
Ape-like development patterns
Ape Brain size
Pronounced sexual dimorphism
woodland/scrub/grassland
Who were Kanapoi?
First Australopithecus
First evidence of obligate Bipedalism
Who wer A. anamesis?
Distal tibia - built for walking
Condytes - Perpendicular to tibial diaphesis
Buttress absorbed impact
Large U shaped dentition
Large Molars
Who were A. afarensis?
(3.8 - 2.7 mya)
signifcant sexual dimorphasism
ethiopai, Kenya, Tanzania
Size between humans and apes
Human and non-human like skeleton
400 cc
A. Africanus
(3 -2.2 mya)
440 cc
less sexual dimorphacism - shorter canines
No distema
Larger Molars
Smaller incisors
A. Garhi
2.5 mya
earliest tool users
Panthropus
(2.5 - 1 mya)
greatly reduced incisors and canines
enormous molars (4x larger than humans)
Prominent sagital crest - Powerful Jaws
Flat Faces
Jaws (up to 10x thicker than humans)
Stone tool makers
Most hominids use tools chimps
Oldowan method
(2.5 mya)
first tools to appear
Cores - round stones
flakes - removed from cores to produce sharp edge
Substitence economy
In humans, use of complex foraging techniques affects life history and social structure
1. Collected food - gathered eaten directly
2. Extracted food - gathered taken to shelter and protected
3. Hunted foods - mobile must be caught sometimes required extraction and processing
Human Foragers
Rely upon food that's harder to get. Hunted and collected food
-Required years of training
-Hunted throughout the years
- Items varied
Larger Brains for more complex strategies
Long Juvenile life Period
Meant longer life span
Increased generation time
only favored if sufficient payoff
Division of Labor
Men and women specialize
-Women - mainly forage (collective and extractive foraging)
-Men - Mainly hunted
Specializing only possible with food sharing
Hunting Risk
don't find food without sharing can die
If you share less probable that there will be death
Homo habilis
(1.9 - 1.6 mya)
510 cc
smaller teeth
Homo rudolfensis
2.4 mya
750 cc
bigger teeth
Long arms - Short legs
Fast life history
Earliest members of Homo
Homo Seoliba
Homo Seoliba?
south africa
420 cc
kinda like australpithecus and homo
shirft from hominin to homo
1.8 mil
Large bodies
long legs - short arms
slower growth rate
reduced sexual dimorphism
Homo ergastic
males 6ft women 5ft
long legs, narrow hips
Narrow shoulders
Robust
low sexual dimorphism
Body Proportion = modern humans
Early Homo traits (ancestral features)
receeding forhead
No chin
Narrow behind eyes
Early Homo traits (Derived features)
Larg Brow ridge
Smaller, less protruding face
Higher skulls
Smaller teeth
Body change for running (energetics)
Tendons generace for economically
longer foot
stride length increased (longer legs)
smaller feet
Body change for running (strength)
Enlarged joints but only in lower limbs
Body change for running (stabalization)
Trunk rotation
Body change for running (thermoregulation)
Sweat
Long body form
Mouth Breathing
Homo eragastic created what?
Acheulian tool industry
-same proportions regardless of size
-unchanged for 1 million years
Functions
-wood working
-Butchery
Homo eragastic
Acheulian tool industry
Controlled fire
Out of Africa to where?
North to Europe, Middle east, China
East to islands of Australia