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79 Cards in this Set

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establishment, maintenance, acquisition and expansion of colonies in one territory by people from another territory
colonialism
state of inadequate development: symptoms of which include lack of access to job opportunities, health care, drinkable water, food, education and housing
underdevelopment
the growing of crops for sale as opposed to consumption..
cash cropping
The cultivation of a single crop in a given area
monoculture
Colonialism
-forced peasants to replace food crops with cash crops
-took over best agriculture land for export crop plantations
-encouraged a dependence on imported food
-blocked native peasant cash crop production from competing with cash crops prodcued by settlers or foreign firms
Why people can't feed themselves....still?
-government opening their doors to cheap food imports make it harder for their own farming communities to flourish
-food-price inflation
Two strategies to get population to grow cash crops
1. use physical or economic force and then turn over cash crops for export
2. direct takeover of the land by large-scale plantations growing crops
Solution to problem according to article Why Can't people feed themselves?
-farming communities need to embrace agro-ecological appraoches to create new farming practices
-more ecological approaches, less chemical approaches
How did colonial powers turn native peoples from growing food for themselves to the production of cash crops?
-physical/economic force: grown under threat of guns and whips. taxation was preferred colonial technique.
-second strategy was direct takeover
West African Cocoa Control Board
pay peasants a reasonable price for their crops. took profits from these farms and put them into the royal treasury
Is the problem of world hugner a myth?
Yes, we have enough food in the world to disperse it among everyone so no one would be hungry, but we don't disperse it well enough and waste a lot of food
Have countries that have widespread malnutrition ever been able to feed their populaiton?
Yes, they have been able to
By what percentage did the indian population fo the new world decrease?Why
Spanish conquistadors killed an estimated 95% of the indian population through diseases such as small pox
Why were the spaniards victorious over the indians
because of their diseases they carried across seas (smallpox, measles, influenza) that they were immune too
Greatest epidemic in human history
american epidemic which resulted in the drop of populatoin in the americas from 100 milllion to 5 million
type of exchange economy found in hunter-gathering societies and other pre-agricultural societies in which goods are exchanged on an informal basis without keeping track of what is given to whom and/or who owes what to whom
reciprocity
Example of reciprocity
The kula ring; system of exchange in the trobriand islands where trading partners from direct islands take risky voyages to exchange shell ornaments around the ring of islands
In what sort of relatinoships is reciprocity embedded?
found in hunter-gathered bands and is embedded within the context of family/kinship based relationships.
involves the accumulation of large amount of labor products produced by different individuals in a central place, where they are sorted and counted and then given away to producers and non-producers alike
redistribution
egalitarian redistribution
redistributor lacks the power to coerce followers into intensifying produciotn and must depend on their good will
stratified redistribution
workers must contribute to the central pool or suffer penalties, and they may not get anything in return for their ard work
barter market
system of economic exchange in which goods or services are directly exchanged for other goods or services WITOUT using a medium of exchange such as money
Why is a barter market limited
because almost all modern societies today use currency to exchange goods/services
Characteristics of price markets
-large populations
-informal transactions (unknown buyers/sellers)
-currency driven (all transactions for goods/services are quantifiable)
How does one gain prestige in late 20th century U.S
through attaining a high level of value in the market eocnomy. more money=more power=more success
"economic exchange" term for production and exchange because economic relationships entail power relations enforced by state's coercive arm
political economy
market where goods are bought and sold iwth money, distributed, minted, and printed by the state
price market exchange
Political organization
-level of political integratoin
-specialize political roles
-degree of political coercivness
-leadership, authority, and power
In what kind of societiesi do leaders have authority and no popwer
band and village societies: orderly relations between individuals are maintian without governemtn and law-enforcement specialists
Example of last slide
"Big Man": system foudn throughout melanesia and based on rank, feasting , and alliance that regulates relations between local descent groups in an area of high population density and intense warfare
A chief's role
unlike the "big man" chiefs inherited their office, live better than commoners, and even though they do redistribute, they kepp the best goods for themselves
Examples of chiefdoms
Trobraind and Cherokee
Then the large chiefdoms involved into..
states because of dense populaitons, intensive agriculture with storable staples, and circumscription that restricts migration
Examples of the states
Inca of peru, leaders of ancient empires possesssed vast amounts of power
In what kind of societies do leaders have power and no authority?
the state is a form of politically centralized society whose governing elite have the power
first legal document of political conduct
hammurabi's code
States have several levels og government:
administrative bureaurcracies that coordinate the military, eocnomic, legal, and ritual activities of a network fo villages
The result of having states
-war increases, intensfies, and becomes something that is politico-economically motivated
most of the daily burdens of maintaining law and order against discontented individuals and groups
Thought control
Institutions seek to...
-distract
-confuse
-demoralize
potential trouble makers before they have to be punished
Mechanisms of thought control in ancient states
masses were kept under control by letting them watch gladiatorial contest and other circus spectaculars "bread and circuses"
Who engaged in this ancient thought control
Inca, Aztects, and ancient Egyptians
Other examples of thought control:
Religion processions, coronations, and victory parades
Mechanisms of thoughts control in modern states
-movies, television, radio, organized sports, luna landings
-cumpulsory universal education
-saluting the flags
-goal: to amuse and distract people
it's a world of doublespeak, doublethink, newspeak, thought-crime, where history is altered daily, governments keep an ever-changing stream of lies streaming into the minds of its subjects
electronic opiates
Why do all state socities produce monumental architecture?
give permanence to the power and privileges of the ruling elite by providing a plaec where poeple can come together to witness the status of thier rulers
Examples:
-pyramids of egypt
-teotihuacan in mexico
-gothic cathedrals of medieval europe
type of power held by a group in a society which allows administration of some or all of public resources, including labour, and wealth
political power
recognition by other fo a leader's right or obligation to influence them
authority
ability to influence the behavior of others, especially in matters of political concern
leadership
the ability to force others to behave in certain ways
power
guns for slaves policy
-by giving guns to some in order to obtain more slaves.
-around 400,000 guns were shipped into africa every year.
How many slaves were living in america by the 1700s?
20 million
what was the cause of depopulation of the Americas
aztects did not have armor or guns, but they had massive armies. However, the europeans had armor, guns, AND diseases to be spread
What happened to the population after Columbus arrived
fell from 100 million to 5 million
What was the population of the Americas on the eve of Columbus' arrival
100 million
Order of events of expansion:
1. discoverers
2. soldiers
3. merchants
4. missionaries
5. bureaucrats
What was the total population fo the world in 1600 AD
600 million
One factor that contributed to the political defeat of the Aztecs and INcas at the hands of the Spanish conquistadors
natives were deliberately infected with blankets from small pox patients
Why are theree no un-contracted or "pristine" cultures in the world for at least 500 years?
voyages of columbus intiated a period of unparalleled change. No group of people, however remote geographical, escaped the change.
who started the slave trade?
portuguese
belief that one's own patterns of behavior are always natural, good, beautiful, or important and that strangers live by savage, inhuman, disgusting or irrational standards
Ethnocentrism.
-It provides a barrier to cross-cultural understanding
process whereby culture is passed on from one generation to the next. A partially consicous and partially unconsicous learning experience whereby the older generation invites, induces, and comels the younger generation to adopt traditional ways of thinking and belieivng
enculturation
-encultuation passes culture on via LEARNED EXPERIENCE
Enculturation accounts for __________ of culture, does not account for ___________ of culture
continuity; evolution
process of judghing and interpreting the behavior and beliefs of others in terms of THEIR traditions and experiences and not your own
cultural relativsm
refers to biological and cultural traits that imporve opportunities for individuals of a population to surve and reporduce
Adaptation
Culture is humankind's major mode of -_______
adaptation
systematic COMPARISON of cultures around the glove used to answer particular questions and produce generalizations about humankind and behavior
ethnology
systematic DESCRIPTION of a popular culture through fieldwork. Firsthand description of living culture based on a personal observation
ethnography
Four subdisciplines of anthropology?
-Physical anthropology
-Cultural anthropology
-Archeological anthropology
-Anthropological linguistics
Physical anthropology
study of humanity as a biological phenomenon
Cultural anthropology
study of social, symbolic, and material lives of existing and recently extant societies
archeological anthropology
study of prehistoric/historic societies in an attempt to piece together and understand historical culture
Anthropological linguistics
study of descriptive sociolinguistics from a variety of spoken languages and cultures
cultural similarities or aspects of culture that all societies share on some level. imply that all cultures, regardless of differences, share some of the same basic traits which organize daily live
culture universals:
ex: reproduction, birth control, marriage, music, art, religion
biological determinsim
political-social doctrin that states that cultural differences have biological bases and as such, groups of people differ in how they think, act, and feel because they differ in innate biological make-up
Why biological determinsim is wrong
physical differences do NOT account for cultural differences
-members of any 'race' are equally capable of learning ANY culture
-an enormous range of cultural diversity occurs among members of a single race
-hugely different cultural systems succeed one another in time within the same race and within the same society
Olgabra
group that is all in desert, very dispersed, but care about everyone else around them
Tribe in the movie..
-gave his father a proper burial by cutting down trees creating a wooden horse that carries a big stone towards the burial.