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62 Cards in this Set

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anthropology
the study of human condition across space and time
science
a collection of bodies of knowledge and ways of describing, predicting, and manipulating events in the universe.

a set of practices and methods designed to challenge and revise preconceived notions about the world with logic, reason, and the collection of empirical data
fact
a statement that is "...confirmed to such a degree that it would be perverse to withhold provisional consent."

only true to the extent we fail to prove otherwise
hypothesis
a carefully worded conjecture derived from theory designed to be challenged by a test
is evolution fact or theory?
both.
models
purpose is to be able to take a complicated framework and have it interact with data, by building a manageable abstract representation of the phenomenon being study
genome
the total of all DNA in an organism. very little of the human genome is comprised of genes.
DNA: four basic molecules
adenine, thymine, guanine, cytosine
in DNA, what binds to what?
a -> t
g -> c
what is replaced in RNA?
thymine replaced by uracil
where is genetic info held?
nucleus and mitochondria
purpose of genome?
map/model to help explain things going on-- compare to other species, etc.
gene
region of DNA that codes for a functional protein of RNA prodcut
transposon
"jumping gene"
moves/relocates from one element in the genome to another at random
retrotransposon
part of the genome that can make copies of itself and insert it into another part of the genome
protein
an organic compound made of a linear sequence of amino acids joined with peptide bonds
pseudogenes
a non-functional copy of a gene

ancestral gene that is no longer functioning
p arm
short arm of a chromosome
q arm
long arm of a chromosome
telomere
region at either end of a chromosome
centromere
the region at which chromatids are bound to one another during cell replication
mitochondrial DNA
small, circular genome of the mitochondrion organelle. passed on maternally. composition very gene heavy. physically resembles bacterial genome.
locus
location on a chromosome used to compare alleles
allele
indicator that you have variation; variant at a locus
mutation
ultimate source of novel variation. concieved of as happening at random with some probability
crossing over
tangling to chromosomes during meiosis and results in exchange of genetic material between chromosomes
recombination
sometimes happens when chromosomes cross over. can result in novel combinations of alleles on a chromosome.
gene conversion
dna from one chromosome is transferred to another chromosome in a non-reciprocal manner
effects on mutations
not all bad. some are beneficial. most neutral.
mitosys
regular, sematic cells
meiosis
gametes
phenotype
any measurable property of an organism
understanding variation is critical for:
- understanding predisposition for disease
- normal variation
- evolution
discrete phenotypes
comes in categories
continuous phenotypes
varies without natural incremements
genotype
the combination of alleles at a locus or set of loci
homozygous
AA, aa
two like alleles
heterozygous
Aa
two different alleles
law of independent assortment
segregation of one chromosome does not affect segregation of another chromosome

loci independent
law of segregation
gametes contain only one copy or either allele from a parent
dominant
only one copy need be present for a particular phenotype to be expressed
recessive
two copies must be present for a particular phenotype to be expressed
random
outcomes follow no deterministic pattern but instead conform to a probability distribution

DOES NOT MEAN CAUSELESS
AND rule of probability
the prob. that independent events A and B will occur togeher is

probA * probB
OR rule of probability
the prob. that either of two mutually exclusive events A or B will occur is

probA + probB
hardy-weinberg equilibrium
predicts frequencies of genotypes

simplest case

conditions: random mating, no evolution
"no evolution" means...
no natural selection, no genetic drift, no mutation, no gene flow
additive genetic variance
quantity that allows us to explain why relatives of different degrees resemble one another for genetic reasons
heritability
proportion of phenotypic variance made up by additive genetic variance
h^2 = Va / Vp
flynn effect
restandardization of cognitive tests show an improvement of people's scores over time

likely due to environmental differences
jensen's fallacy
because differences within groups have a partial genetic basis, differences between groups must have a partial genetic basis

WRONG.

heritability is only calculated w/in populations, has little to no info about group differences
linkage analysis
used to check for variation within the genome and correlate with different phenotypic outcomes - plotting correlation between variation in genome and phenotype
evolution
change in allele frequencies over time
why use it to study human behavior?
systemic framework for evaluating human uniqueness, on one hand, and the commonalities that we share with other animals
ancient/medieval views of life
diversity due to special creation

spontaneous generation

young earth

catastrophism
view on evolutionary dynamics in 18th century
inheritance of acquired characteristics/"Lamarkism"

teleological evolution

natural selection
analogy
characteristics that have a similar function/appearance but are not necessarily made up of the same elements of anatomy/physiology
homology
similarities between organisms due to shared ancestry
argument behind evolution by natural selection
- heritable variation: individuals differ in a given trait for genetic reasons
- correlation bewteen fitness and a trait: an organism's propensity to live and reproduce is influenced by its phenotype
-differential survival and reproductive success lead to over-representation of some variations in subsequent generations
heritable variation
individuals differ in a given trait for genetic reasons
4 forces of evolution
natural selection, gene flow, random genetic drift, mutation
2 senses of adaptation
feature of an organism that solves a life problem that evolved by natural selection driven by that problem

process of a trait evolving by natural selection that fits it to a particular environment