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84 Cards in this Set

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The Sapir-Whorf hypothesis states that:
a.Culture is the molder of language. Therefore, language reflects the values, attitudes and beliefs of that society
b.Language influences affects how people perceive and conceive reality. In other words, language molds culture.
c.Cultures mix languages to form new languages
d.Language is a completely neutral component of culture
b. Language influences affects how people perceive and conceive reality. In other words, language molds culture.
A distinctive set of standards and behavior patterns by which a group within a larger society operates, that does not go against the mainstream, but may share a common history, language, foodways or belief system is called a
a. subculture
b. counter-culture
c. pluralistic society
d. majority or minority group
a. subculture
In discovering cultural patterns it is sometimes necessary to conduct surveys. What sampling technique is necessary to guarantee a representative sample:
a. random sampling
b. population sampling
c. redundant sampling
d. marginal sampling
a. random sampling
The term “race”:
a. Is used with humans because we are divided into separate biological populations
b. Is a term which has mostly been misused as there are no distinctly biologically different human populations
c.Defines language groups
d.Defines religious groups
b. Is a term which has mostly been misused as there are no distinctly biologically different human populations
A person with an ethnocentric view of another culture:
a. Believes other cultures to be immoral, incorrect, or inferior based on one’s own culture
b. Focuses specifically on ethnicity issues
c. Compares and contrasts ethnic groups
d. Makes decisions about how people should be divided into ethnic groups
a. Believes other cultures to be immoral, incorrect, or inferior based on one’s own culture
The concept of cultural relativism suggests that
a. All societies start off as primitive and become civilized
b. The culture of each society should be viewed relative to their history,
environment, experiences and problems
c. Primitive societies are better and more egalitarian
d. A universal human rights document is an easy way to grade societies that are better or worse
b. The culture of each society should be viewed relative to their history, environment, experiences and problems
Culture is defined by anthropologists as
a. A common set of values, beliefs, customs, and behavior
b. The custom of attending the theater and ballet
c. How many wives or husbands people decide to marry
d. Food gathering behavior and languages
a.A common set of values, beliefs, customs, and behavior
A Creole language is best defined as:
a. The language spoken in Louisiana
b. African slang and sloppy English
c. A mixture of two or more languages, that uses intonation instead of a word order to ask a question, and double negatives.
d. An ancient slave language of South Carolina
c. A mixture of two or more languages, that uses intonation instead of a word order to ask a question, and double negatives.
Acclimatization is:
a. A lactose intolerant condition
b. An ability to breathe thin air at high altitudes
c. Skin tones that are an adaptation to ultraviolet light levels
d. Biological adaptations to environmental conditions that people develop during their lifetimes
d. Biological adaptations to environmental conditions that people develop during their lifetimes
The Sapir-Whorf hypothesis states that:
a.Culture is the molder of language. Therefore, language reflects the values, attitudes and beliefs of that society
b. Language influences affects how people perceive and conceive reality. In other words, language molds culture.
c. Cultures mix languages to form new languages
d. Language is a completely neutral component of culture
b. Language influences affects how people perceive and conceive reality. In other words, language molds culture.
A distinctive set of standards and behavior patterns by which a group within a larger society operates, that does not go against the mainstream, but may share a common history, language, foodways or belief system is called a
a. subculture
b. counter-culture
c. pluralistic society
d. majority or minority group
a. subculture
In discovering cultural patterns it is sometimes necessary to conduct surveys. What sampling technique is necessary to guarantee a representative sample:
a. random sampling
b. population sampling
c. redundant sampling
d. marginal sampling
a. random sampling
The term “race”:
a. Is used with humans because we are divided into separate biological populations
b. Is a term which has mostly been misused as there are no distinctly biologically different human populations
c. Defines language groups
d. Defines religious groups
b. Is a term which has mostly been misused as there are no distinctly biologically different human populations
An archaeological site is defined as:
A. Remnants of past human activity either above and below the ground
B. Layers of soil representing many years of occupation
C. A hearth pit, post hole or burial
D. Anything made, used, or modified by humans
A. Remnants of past human activity either above and below the ground
A paleontologist would be interested in:
A. Primates
B. Cultural Systems
C. Fossils
D. Sociological relationships
C. Fossils
Charles Darwin proposed ___________ was the mechanism behind evolution.
A. Inclusive fitness
B. Natural selection
C. Independent assortment
D. Uniformitarianism
B. Natural selection
The position of the foramen magnum on the Australopithecine discovered by Raymond Dart convinced him that the creature, known as the Taung child, was
A. An ape
B. Quadrupedal
C. bipedal
D. 65 million years old
C. bipedal
The concept of natural selection is best defined as:
A. Survival of only the biggest and strongest
B. The main process that increases the frequency of adaptive traits over time
C. Adapting unsuccessfully to changing environments
D. An extremely high rate of reproduction of
B. The main process that increases the frequency of adaptive traits over time
This is a means to determine guilt or innocence by submitting the accused to a dangerous or painful test believed to be under supernatural control
a. ritual
b. adjudication
c. resolution
d. ordeal
d. ordeal
Animatism may be best defined as
b. a belief in an impersonal supernatural power
The main evolutionary thrust of the Homo line was
a. brain size
Undisputed examples of modern looking humans Homo sapiens sapiens emerged
50,000 years ago
A doctrine by which one group asserts its “biological” superiority over another, is called
a. racism
________________ is a term used by both anthropologists and psychologists to describe development, through the influence of parents and other people, of patterns of behavior in children that conform to cultural expectations.
socialization
It is speculated that people in pre-industrial societies resort to violence
d. to hedge against the unpredictability of natural disasters
Most people in the United States practice which kinship/descent system
a. bilateral
A oath is an act that
b. the act of calling upon a deity to bear witness to the truth of what one says
most societies ghosts resemble
a. close friends and relatives
Polyandry is the marriage of
d. one woman to more than one man at one time
Gracile australipithecines are usually are usually differentiated from robust australipithecines by their
b. lighter dentition and smaller faces
Monotheistic religions (Christianity, Judaism, Islam) generally have beliefs in ______________, whereas polytheistic religions generally have beliefs in____________:
a. a supreme supernatural being together with lower-ranked supernaturals, many important gods with no one as supreme.
Marriage includes two factors
sexual and economic considerations
What factor plays the most prevalent role in labor assignments cross-culturally?
b. gender
Anthropology is different from other disciplines that study humans because
b. it synthesizes data from many fields in an effort to describe human behavior in a holistic manner
use of intensive irrigation in agriculture is often associated with
c. the rise of sedentary populations
The most significant difference between states, bands and chiefdoms is
c. states are organized territorially, rather than by kinship and/or descent
An archaeologist might attempt to
a. study material remains to reconstruct past cultures
Band organization is associated with
b. hunter-gatherers
A human paleontologist would be interested in
c. fossil evidence of humans
Which subsistence technology characterizes people who live by collecting naturally occurring plants and animals?
d. foragers
A sociolinguist focuses on
a. actual speech in its social context
Which process results in cellular reproduction or growth involving the duplication of chromosome pairs?
c. mitosis
According to the way it is defined by most of the world’s religions, the supernatural is
b. human in shape
The study of cultures of the recent past through accounts and archival material left by explorers, missionaries and traders is called
a. ethnohistory
Which of the following would NOT be considered part of biological (physical) anthropology?
a. primatology
b. human paleontology
c. forensic anthropology
d. ethnohistory
d. ethnohistory
Exogamy is adaptive because it
a. increases the number of individuals on whom one can rely in time of need
Rules of descent
a. shape the composition of land-holding units
b. specify membership in a kin group
c. regulate the transmission of property and authority
d. all of the above
d. all of the above
Which of the following fields is BEST described as the study of the emergence and evolution of humans?
a. primatology
b. paleoanthropology
c. human variation
d. archaeology
paleoanthropology
The broad-spectrum revolution refers to the period when
c. glacial retreat resulted in the exploitation and availability of new food resources
The modern debate about the Neandertal’s relationship to modern humans, focuses on whether Neandertals
d. are directly in the evolutionary line of modern humans or an evolutionary dead-end
Which was the first hominid to extend its range beyond Africa?
b. Homo erectus
Charles Darwin proposed ___________ was the mechanism behind evolution.
b. natural selection
The position of the foramen magnum on the Australopithecine discovered by Raymond Dart convinced him that the creature, known as the Taung child, was
c. bipedal
American racial categories are
a. culturally arbitrary, even though most people assume them to be scientifically accurate
A society composed of several groups that differ in their access to resources, power and prestige is said to be
stratified
Magic and religion are similar in that both
attempt to provide an explanation for events that seem inexplicable and a means of social control
Gregor Mendel discovered the principle of ____________, which states that one trait may dominate another.
a. dominance and recessiveness
Which of the following is NOT true of the Neolithic Revolution?
it rarely occurred in locations near major water sources
This New World city was actually larger than Imperial Rome at its height and became a great trade center in Mesoamerica.
Teotihuacan
Anthropologists suggest that art
expresses the traditions and sentiments of a culture
In a patrilineal society, children in each generation belong to the kin group of
their father
Chiefdoms, unlike state level societies, are based on
kinship and hereditary rules
Chiefdoms
tend to have an economy based on redistribution
Among many pastoralists and horticulturalists, such as the Nuer of East Africa, social disputes are resolved
through hereditary mediators
Which of the following was NOT associated with early agricultural populations?
a more nutritious diet
Political leaders in foraging bands typically
are mediators, having no means of forcing people to follow their decisions
Within pastoral cultures, economic status and prestige are based on
size of the herd
Horticulturalists, like the Yanomamo from South America
cultivate new garden sites every 2-8 years
The ability to remains sedentary in preagricultural societies is most likely associated with
the nearness of high-yield or reliable resources
The artifact tradition of Homo neandertalensis was mostly
Mousterian
Cultural Anthropologists are concerned with
a. the function of social institutions
b. the meaning that culture gives to an experience
c. the structure and change in a culture over time
d. all of the above
all of the above
The Australopithecine, as a species, probably evolved and adapted to which environment?
open savannah
The opening in the base of the skull through which the spinal cord passes en route to the brain is the
foramen magnum
Who was the primatologist who lived with and studied chimpanzees in Tanzania?
Jane Goodall
Why are maladaptive customs likely to disappear from society?
because they diminish the chances of survival and reproduction
The most important source of genetic variety in any population is:
a. catastrophism
b. dominance of traits
c. mutation
d. uniformity
c. mutation
Which of the following statements is TRUE about the performance on an I.Q. test?
a. all African Americans and Native Americans score lower than the average European American
b. I.Q. tests measure enculturation, not innate mental capacity
c. most standardized tests are designed with the target population in mind
d. tests have been constructed based on the average European American female intellectual capacity
b. I.Q. tests measure enculturation, not innate mental capacity
High crop yields can encourage innovation because
c. surplus allows some people to specialize and pursue non-agricultural activities
A distinctive set of standards and behavior patterns by which a group within a larger society operates, that does not go against the mainstream, but may share a common history, language, foodways or belief system is called a
a. subculture
Levirate is a custom that requires:
c. a man marry his deceased brother’s wife
Redistribution of wealth is achieved through balanced reciprocity in cultural rituals such as
a. kula ring and potlatch
The introduction of alleles from the gene pool of one population into that of another that tends to decrease genetic differences is
gene flow
In North America what two animals were the earliest known major domesticates?
dog and turkey
Which of the following is NOT a form of absolute or chronometric dating
dating based on site stratigraphy