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31 Cards in this Set

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what is TRANSHUMANCE?
PATTERNS OF STRICT SEASONAL MOVEMENT BETWEEN DIFFERENT ENVIRONMENTAL ZONES: The Bakhtiari move from their summer quarters in the mountains as soon as fall begins, and move again in the spring from their winter quarters in the lowlands.
what are AGE GRADES:
Provides tribes with political organization beyond the kin group.
Certain age grades pass as "age sets " of people from age grade to age grade throughout their lives. These groups cut across all kin structures.
For example: among the Tiriki of E. Africa here are the age grades for men:
What are the twi types of Horticulture?
Dryland

Swidden [Slash and Burn
Describe "When Brothers share a Wife"
Goldstein
- reduces pop growth
- keeps land available
- fraternal polyandry
what is CULTURAL ECOLOGY?
THE STUDY OF THE INTERACTION OF SPECIFIC HUMAN SOCIETIES WITH THEIR ENVIRONMENT.
What happens as pops grow?
Population increases and the resulting technological specialization leads to labor specialization and trade networks that produce surpluses of goods and the opportunity for some individuals or groups to exercise control over others. In these societies, political authority or power is concentrated in:



In a single Individual [the Chiefdom]
In a body of individuals [the State]


The state is a form of organization found in societies in which each Individual must interact on a regular basis with large numbers of people who have diverse interests and who are neither kin nor close acquaintances.

Describe "arranging a marriage in India"
Nanda
- Good: Low divorce rate, marriage of not just two people, but families.
- Bad - Dowry death, women are alienated and hated
what is CONVERGENT EVOLUTION?
DEVELOPMENT OF SIMILAR ADAPTATIONS TO SIMILAR ENVIRONMENTS BY PEOPLES WHOSE ANCESTRAL CULTURES WERE QUITE DIFFERENT.
Describe "zombies"
Guereio
- Voodo as social control
Describe - Body Ritual among the Nacirema
Miner
- Ritals performed at a cost
what is PARALLEL EVOLUTION?
SIMILAR ADAPTATIONS ARE ACHIEVED BY PEOPLES WHOSE ANCESTRAL CULTURES WERE QUITE SIMILAR. [DEVELOPMENT OF FARMING IN SW ASIA AND MESOAMERICA.]
What is Adaptation Process?
[1] a moving balance between the needs of a population and the potential of an environment. [2] The interaction process between changes an organism makes in its environment and the changes the environment makes in the organism.

Adaptation is therefore [1] cultural and [2] physical

[1] Cultural:

[2] Physical: for example: sickle cell Anemia.


What are the three types of reciprocity?
Generalized - no return

Balanced - all equals out

Negative - I give a little to get as much as possible
What are UNITS OF ADAPTATION?
Includes both organisms and the environment. Organisms exist as members of populations; populations must have the flexibility and the ability to cope with changes in the environment. In genetic terms, this means differing genetic endowments, while in cultural terms it means variations among skills, knowledge and personalities. While environments do not determine culture, they certainly set limits on the boundaries and possibilities.

What is HORTICULTURE?
Cultivation of crops using hand tools such as digging sticks or hoes. Cultivate several varieties of crops in small gardens.

Garden plots used only for a few years before being abandoned for a new plot.
Horticulture is an extensive, rather than intensive, form of subsistence.
Production is for subsistence, not for surplus
SOCIETIES OF FEASTING: THE BIG MAN.
SWIDDEN FARMING [SLASH AND BURN HORTICULTURE]:
Ecologically sophisticated and sustainable way of raising food if carried out under conditions of low population and adequate amounts of land.
Swidden mimics the diversity of a natural ecosystem and is very energy efficient.:
Growing several crops together in the same filed makes them less vulnerable to pests and plant diseases than growing single crops.
INTENSIVE AGRICULTURE AND NONINDUSTRIAL CITIES:
Communites become cities

Specialization

City dwellers are only indirectly concerned with adaptation to the natural environment.

Most important the need to adapt to living with and getting along with fellow citizens.

Farmers provide the city with food; many farmers have little say over production
A NEW SOCIAL ORDER:

STRATIFIED SOCIETY; INEQUALITY
RANK: GENDER, KIND OF WORK, KIN
FORMAL, BUREAUCRATIC [DENSITY OF SOCIAL RELATIONS]
SPECIALIZED POLITICAL INSTITUTIONS.

What is an ECOSYSTEM?
composed of the physical environment and the organisms living within it. The system is bound by the activities of the organism as well as by physical processes such as erosion and evaporation
DECENTRALIZED POLITICAL SYSTEMS
Tribes and Bands
what is the Government?
consists of an administrative system having specialized personnel that may or may not form a part of political organization: depends on social complexity.
what are Tribal Economics?
based on horticulture or Pastoralism. Both offer greater yields in food than H/G, therefore they have larger populations. Larger populations bring new sets of social problems [based on density of social relations factors]: [1] more opportunities for dispute, begging, adultery, theft etc]
what are CULTURE AREAS?
A GEOGRAPHIC REGION WHOSE NUMEROUS DIFFERENT SOCIETIES FOLLOW SIMILAR PATTERNS OF LIFE.
EXAMPLE: THE GREAT PLAINS:

THIRTY One politically independent peoples faced a common environment in which the BUFFALO played a central role.

Buffalo: source of food, clothing and shelter

Nations shared [diffusion] inventions, discoveries and ideas.

Nations divided into warrior societies, male prestige came through hunting and fighting skills.

Camps were typically arranged in a distinctive circular pattern

Religious rituals [sun dance] practiced throughout the region.

Some geographic regions are not as uniform in climate and topography:

The Great Basin Culture Area.

Shoshone Indians: divided into a northern and western group:

North: abundant game animals, large populations and a lot of cooperation between local groups.

West: this group was dependent upon gathering of wild plants and as these varied considerably by season, they travlelled long distances in search of food. Therefore: very small groups.

South in Great basin: the Paiutes: hunter/gatherers, but managed food resources by diverting small streams to irrigate wild crops. Larger populations than the Shoshone and less nomadic.
what are Human ecologists?
favor microstudies of human ecosystems; all aspects of human culture must be considered not just the technological ones. Human ecosystems must be interpreted in cultural terms. Example: Tsembaga.
who are ETHNOSCIENTISTS?
ANTHROPOLOGISTS WHO SEEK TO UNDERSTAND THE PRINCIPLES BEHIND FOLK IDEOLOGIES AND THE WAY THESE IDEOLOGIES HELP A PEOPLE SURVIVE. ie. Tsembaga: Low lying marshes: avoided, red spirits inhabit them and punish trespassers with death.

Western Science: marshy areas are the home of the mosquitos that cause malaria that causes death].


what is Pastoralism?
Societies that regard animal husbandry as the ideal way of making a living and considers movement of all or part of the society as a normal and natural way of life.

Some [not all] pastoral nomads are dependent on nearby farmers for some of their supplies
THE CONCEPT OF PASTROAL NOMADISM IS THE CENTRAL PRINCIPLE OF THEIR IDENTITY.
Pastoral Nomadism is not just a "job".
It is an effective way of living in places that are too dry, too cold, or too rocky for farming.
In Africa and southwest Asia alone, more than 21 million people follow a pastoral way of life.
The Bakhtiari: Iran: tend herd of goats and fat tailed sheep. Some own horses and most donkeys, but the animals re identity are goats and sheep.
Describe a TRIBE!!!!
organized by [1] KIN and [2] ASSOCIATION.

DECENTRALIZED OR MULTI CENTERED ORGANIZATION
Tribes break down into separate bands or villages that are related by pan-tribal [across tribal] factors. For example, may be organized into clans that cross into separate communities.
ASSOCIATIONS [TYPE ONE] AGE GRADES; age grades cut across kinship lines and territorial boundaries.
Describe "A Woman's Curse"
M. Small
- Menstration Taboo
- Menstrating women are removed from society
-
How do humans manage to deal with the contingencies of everyday life?
Adaptation.
what is EVOLUTIONARY ADAPTATION?
Adaptation must also be understood from a historical point of view. Organisms must have the potential to adjust to an environment in order to become part of it.

What is Intensive Agriculture?
Intensive Agriculturists:

Modify the landscape and ecology Employ irrigation, fertilizers, draft animals, tractors etc: sophisticated technology
Provide for subsistence AND for surplus
Found in societies that similarly mploy "specialists" and are composed of towns and cities.
MAJOR TYPES OF CROP COMPLEXES: [1] TWO ADAPTED TO SEASONAL UPLANDS AND [2] TWO ADAPTED TO TROPICAL WETLANDS.
Dry Uplands: Mouth West Asia: agriculture is timed with the rhythm of changing seasons; wheat, barley, flax, rye and millet are cultivated.
Tropical Wetlands: [Southeast Asia] Rice, tubers, tams and yaro.
Describe "SOCIETY AND SEX ROLES"
E. Friedl
- Less meat provided by men, the more egalitarian
- Meat = sex segrigation"
-
what is CULTURE TYPE?
THE CONCEPT OF VIEWING A CULTURE IN TERMS OF THE RELATION OF ITS PARTICULAR TECHNOLOGY TO THE ENVIRONMENT THAT TECHNOLOGY EXPLOITS.