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61 Cards in this Set

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Why is there no universal definition for marriage?
Because same-sex marriages are recognized in some cultures and marriage units of more than two spouses are also accepted in some cultures.
What is fraternal polyandry?
One woman marrying many brothers.
What does marriage accomplish?
1. establishes parents for children
2. gives spouses a monopoly in sexuality to each other
3. gives spouses rights to labor of other
4. spouses have right over other's property
5. establish joint property for benefit of children
6. establish "relationship of affinity"
What is incest?
Sexual relations with someone considered to be a close relative
Taboo in all cultures
Instinctive Horror
Homo sapiens have genetically programmed disgust towards incest
Biological Degeneration
abnormal offspring as a result of incest
Bronislaw Malinowski's Theory
Believed children try to express their sexual feelings with members of nuclear family as they grow but they go outside the family because it could destroy the family
Marriage systems
Endogamy and Exogamy
Endogamy
the practice of marrying within a social group because of social norms that incoure or require it.
* village endogamy
* lineage endogamy
* caste endogamy
* class endogamy
village endogamy
marrying "girl next door" because of frequent contact
lineage endogamy
marriage between members of same lineage
caste endogamy
marriage between members of same caste to maintain purity of heredity lines (India)
Class Endogamy
people in U.S. have tendency to seek partners with similar educational background
Exogamy
marrying outside a specified group of people to which one belongs
Polygyny
mating of one male with multiple females
polyandry
mating one female with multiple males
How many chromosomes are there?
46
Asexually
reproducing without sex, by fissioning or budding as in many single-celled organisms
Fission (splitting of one population to make others)
Sexual dimorphism
* males are larger
* females' pelvis' are wider and shorter
* males have larger hearts, lungs, higher blood pressure
Hijras
3rd gender in India (men behave as women)
What is a berdache?
a Native American man who dressed and behaved as a woman (3rd gender)
Gender among foragers?
Men hunt, women gather
men higher than women if hunting more prominent
women higher when foraging more prominent
Gender among foragers?
Women do most of cultivating (50% main workers)
Gender among Agriculturists
women lost role as primary cultivators
only 15% of agricultural (hutterites)
Definition of culture
the complex whole which includes knowledge, belief, art, morals, laws, customs and any other capabilities and habitats acquired by man as a member of society
Characteristics of culture
1. Learned directly and indirectly
2. shared through extragenetic transmission
3. symbolic
4. adaptive and maladaptive
5. realized through artifacts
Direct culture
being taught to say "thank you"
Indirectly learning culture
learning through observation (pledge)
what are the mechanisms of cultural change?
diffusion
acculturation
independent invention
convergence
globalization
What is diffusion?
Direct: two cultures marry, trade, or wage war on one another
Forced: one culture subjugates another and imposes its customs on the dominated group
Indirect: cultural traits move from group A to group C via group B
What is acculturation?
The first hand exchange of cultural traits but each culture stays distinct
What is independent invention?
Two different cultures hind similar solutions to a problem (agriculture in Mid. East and Mexico
(mechanism)
what is convergence?
When two cultures become similar because of their similar environments (mechanism)
What is globalization?
Global communities become mutually dependent on each other: international commerce
(mechanism)
What are the research tools used to study culture?
Ethnographic: study small societies
Survey instruments: study large, complex, literate societies
What are the ethnographic techniques?
•Participant Observation (live with society and engage)
•Naturalistic Observation: make record of physical/biological environment
•Interviews:
•Genealogy: “family tree”
•Key Cultural Consultants: village elder
•Video Recording: documents social activities unobtrusively
•Longitudinal research: repeated visits over many years (summer after summer)
What are the types of interviews?
•Structured: face to face and writes down questions and answers
•Unstructured: informal, free-flowing chat
•Life histories: collect stories from respondent who’s life is interesting
•Time allocation analysis: assessing how much time is spent on various activities (day to day activities)
what are they types of survey research?
Population sampling: studying small and representative portion of large society
Questionnaire
What are Gods and Goddesses:
• They are defined as the great and remote beings that are thought to control the universe.
• Pantheon: several gods of a people
• Supremacy of god/goddess has to do with how men and women relate
They are defined as the great and remote beings that are thought to control the universe.
• Pantheon: several gods of a people
• Supremacy of god/goddess has to do with how men and women relate
What are Ancestral Spirits:
Beings are made up of two parts, physical and mental/spiritual self
Ancestors watch their descendents. Bless and punish when needed
What is Animism?
(personalized)
• A belief that nature is animated by distinct personalized spirits
• Most wide spread belief and common in societies that see themselves as one with nature
• Include most foragers and food producing people
• Native Americans
What is Animatisms:
• Belief of certain cultures in supernatural forces. These forces are inanimate and impersonal.
• Brahman is a force in all things but isn’t expressed physically
How does one interact with the supernatural?
Ritual
Magic and Sorcery
Adaptive basis of religion
religion and medicine
What are the two types of ritual?
Rite of passage: marks important phase
rite of intensification: takes place at time of crisis
What is the difference between magic and sorcery?
Sorcery is for evil purposes and magic is for good purposes.
what is the adaptive basis of religion?
to provide sense of good and evil, security and meaning
ability to deal with crisis
community
What is the role of religion in monotheistic societies?
politically stratified
view illness as naturalistic
What is the relationship of religion and medicine in polytheistic societies?
socially/politically less stratified
view illness as caused by sorcery or caused by imbalance between nature and humans
What is bilateral?
when person is member of both parents' descent lines
What is unilateral?
an individual belongs to only one side of the family
what is matrilineal/uterine?
individual is part of mother's group (15% of cultures and women control land/products. Pacific and Australia)
what is patrilineal/agnatic?
descent through men
practiced in 44% of societies
asia and mid. east
family of orientation
family in which a person is born and raised
family of procreation
family that is formed when one marries and has kids
nuclear family
household consisting of two parents and their legal kids
extended family
family that contains at least three generations
blended families
bringing two people together and at least one of them has been married before
Lineal Relatives
ancestor or descent with direct line of descent that leads to and from ego
* parents and grandparents
Collateral relatives
all other kin: siblings, nieces, cousins, uncles, etc.
Affinal relatives
relatives by marriage: in-laws
Fictive relatives
extra kin who provide mutual aid: god parents