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28 Cards in this Set

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When did farming develop?
20,000 to 10,000 years ago
how did farming develop?
Melting of glaciers led to huge grasslands with megafauna(big animals). but grasslands became forrested. the megafauna meant overpopulation, but now that it was gone, there was a lack of animals for food.
Where did farming develop?
It developed gradually in the mesopotamian river, tigris euphrates, indus river valley, yellow river valley in india, central america
What about middle eastern goat herding?
developed about 20,000 to 8,000 years ago. 10,000 years ago they began to domesticate goats. 8,000 years ago theres evidence of people using wool && domestication of the pig
How middle easterners domesticated goats..
they protected goats from other animals. They ate baby males and elderly females to ensure theyd have 19 adult females and one adult male. you get more baby male goats to eat and baby females to reproduce.
plant selection...conscious selection...
first, brittle rachis. by 10,000 years ago, all rachis were stiff. 9000 years ago conscious selection taking place. barley. rye and oats did better in northern climates. indus river valley and china, grain of choice was rice. middle america and peru was maise
what happened in nile valley 5,000 years ago?
changes in climate. north africa became a desert, but as the sahara expanded, people crowded into nile valley. this led to warfare and trade.
4,000 years ago, Africans...
experimented with the domestication of locally available species(giraffes, hyenas, etc.) adopted cats for pest control. there were little rodents and birds who ate on their crops. They also made wattle and daub houses. (make baskets and smear them with mud so they are wind and waterproof)
new stone age. same tools, more usage of axe. 10,000 years ago. big change- farming/horticulture
swidden/ slash and burn farming
you take a forest area and you cut down the trees and let them dry out and then you burn what is left in the ashes. the ashes contain nutrients that you can grow plants in. after plants are consumed, area is abandoned. 2-3 years of crops, but 10-15 yeas without forest. mostly in tropical areas.
advantages to living with domesticates
allows people to live with higher density, stored food cuts down on chance, feeding crops to animals is indirect storage
millats and yams. millats for dry seasons, yams for wet seasons.(Africa) Diversifying means planting crops for all types of environments, so you have food no matter what. It's like food insurance.
pros and cons of horticulture
Pros- you can live in more favorable environments
Cons- horticulture requires more work than hunting/gathering- about 15 hours per week.
slash and burn consequences
people become more sedentary; more permanent living(4-5 yrs); furniture; increased birthrate; increased mortality rate; longer lifespans; more disease and contamination; warfare, stealing of women children and food, 24 percent of males killed in war, people driven off their land, causes differences in statuses of males vs. females; polygamy;
extended family...25 members, generalized reciprocity
groups of related families (500)
myths of common descent (bears, wolves, etc)
groups of related lineage
groups of related tribes
sociocentric status
it no longer matters who you are as an individual, but which group/lineage you are associated with
balanced reciprocity, usually traded are goods that are easily made...more a sign of friendship...leads to social solidarity...less killings...reduces fighting with other lineages
feasting with other groups implies extreme trust; marriages are arranged for the purpose of alliances;
bride price serves several purposes...
no male can defy wishes of family,no female will marry into a lineage that isnt prosperous, makes divorce impossible
if bride dies early into marriage/ can’t have children sister takes her place
widow inheritance; marry her to her dead husbands brother; has/raises children in his name
vertical sodalities
the way you can form bonds is through generational hierarchy(your bonded with your dad, ur kids, ur family). Vertical sodality is composed of one lineage. Why would anyone have this? It decreases fighting and provides social grouping more interaction btwn groups so theres more unity. Social bonding. When you had to make as many alliances as you could, you’d have people to stand by your side.
horizontal sodalities
they unite members of different lineages and clans. Plains Indians. Age grades, special purpose clans. Theres an actual ceremony that unites people from different lineages. They’re not necessarily in the same town, but they’re bonded by a ceremony like circumcision. Why would people want to ally themselves with members from a different lineage…it reduces fighting. Bc other lineages might live in ur village, so if there was a problem, you’d try to damage control.
leadership in horizontal sodalities
everyone has equal opportunities