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67 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
nonindustrial systems of pland cultivation characterized by continuous and intensive use of land and labor
basic unit of social organization among forager. A band includes fewer than 100 ppl; it often splits up seasonally
an association between 2 or more variables such that when one changes the other also changes. (temp and sweating)
cultivation continuum
a contiunuum based on the conparative study of nonindustrial cultivating societies where labor intensity increases and fallowing decreases
the rational allocation of scarce means (resources) to alternative ends (users) often considered the subject matter of economics
a populations system of production, distribution, and consumption of resources
generalized reciprocity (balanced)
principle where exchanges are between closely related ppl. As social distance increases, reciprocity becomes balanced and then finally negative
nonindustrial system of plant cultivation where plots lie fallow for varying lengths of time
market principle
profit-orientated principle of exchange that dominates in states, particularly industrial states. Goods and services are bought and sold, and values determined by supply and demand
means (factors) of production
land, labor, technology, and capital-major reproductive resources
mode of production
way of organizing production-a set of social relations where labor is deployed to wrest energy from nature by means of tools, skills, and knowledge
pastoral nomadism
movement throughout the year by the whole group with their animals
ppl who use a food-producing strategy of adaptation based on care of herds of animals
small-scale agriculturalists living in a state with rent fund obligations
Competitive feast among Indians on the North pacific coast of North America
one of the 3 principles of exchange; governs exchange between social and equals; major exchange mode in band and tribal societies
major exchange mode of chiefdoms, many archaic states, and some states with managed economies
one of 2 variants of pastoralism; part of the population moves seasonally with the herds while the other part remains in home villages
relatives by marriage, whether of lineals (son's wife) or collaterals (sister's husband)
principle of descent that doesnt automatically exclude children of either sons or daughters
bifurcate collateral kinship terminology
Kinship terminology employing separate terms for M, F, MB, MZ, FB, FZ
bifurcate merging kinship terminology
kinship terminology were M and MZ are called by the same term, F and FB are called by the same term, and MB and FZ are called by different terms
bilateral kinship calculation
a system where kinship ties are calculated equally through both sexes: mother and father, sister and brother, daughter and son, and so on.
unilineal descent group based on stipulated descent
collateral relative
a geneological relative who is not in ego's direct line such as B, Z, FB, or MZ
descent group
a permanent social unit whose members claim a common ancestor; fundamental to tribal societies
in kinship charts, the pt from which one views an egocentric genealogy
extended family household
expanded household including 3 or more generations
family of orientations
nuclear family where one is born and grows up
family of procreation
nuclear family established when one marries and has children
functional explanation
explanation that establishes a correlation of interrelationship between social customs. When customs are functionally interrelated,if one changes, the others change
generational kinship terminology
kinship terminology with only 2 terms for the parental generation, one designating M, MZ, & FZ, & the other designating F, FB, & MB
kinship calculation
the system wehre ppl in a particular society reckon kin relationships
unilineal descent group based on demonstrated descent
lineal kinship terminology
parental generation kin terminology with 4 terms; one for M, one for F, one for FB and MB and one for MZ and FZ
lineal relative
any of ego's ancestors or descendants on the direct line of descent that leads to and from ego
matrilneal descent
unilineal descent rule where ppl join the mother's group automatically at birth and stay through life
customary residence with the wife's relatives after marriage, so that the children grow up in their mothers community
postmarital residence pattern where the couple establishes a new place of residence rather than living with or near either set of parents
patrilineal descent
unilineal descent rule where ppl join the fathers group automatically during birth and stay
customary residence with the husband's relatives after marriage, so that children grow up in their father's community
unilineal descent
matrinieal or patrilineal descent
brideweath (progeny price)
a gift from the husband and his kin to the wife and her kin before, at, or after marriage; legitimizes children born to the woman as members of the husband's descent group
cross cousins
children of a brother or sister
a marital exchange where the wife's group provides substantial gifts to the husbands family
rule or practice of marriage between ppl of the same social group
rule requiring ppl to marry outside their own ppl
bilogical father of child
forbidden sexual relations with a close relatives
custom where a widow marries the brother of her deceased husband
socially recognized mother of a child
parallel cousins
children of 2 brothers or 2 sisters
socially recognised father of a child; not necessarily the genitor
plural marriage
any parriage with more than 2 spouses. (polygamy)
variety of plural marriages where a woman has more than one husband
variety of plural marriage where a man has more than 1 wife
where a widower marries his deceased wife's sister
domestic-public dichotomy
contrast between women's role in the home and men's role in public life, with a corresponding social devaluation of women's work and worth.
outside the home; within or pertaining to the public domain
gender roles
the tasks and activities that a culture assigns to each sex
gender stereotypes
oversimplified but strongly held ideas about the characteristics of males and females
gender stratification
unequal distribution of rewards between men and women, reflecting their different possitions ina social hierarchy
mother-centered; often refers to a household with no resident husband-brother
political system ruled by men where women have inferior social and political status, including basic human rights
patrilineal-patrilocal complex
and interrelated constellation of patrilineality, patrilocality, warfare, and male supremacy
sexual dimorphism
marked differences in male and female biology besides the contrasts in breasts and genitals
sexual orientation
a person's habitual sexual attraction to, and activities with, persons of the opposite sex, heterosexuality; the same sex, homsexuality; or both sexes, bisexuality.