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59 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
anthropology
comp study of human societies & cultures
holistic/holism
viewing culture as a whole
cultural anthropology
study of human behavior- learned, typical of groups of people
society
set of social rel. among people w/i geo. area, including status & roles
culture
learned behaviors & symbols allow people to live in groups
historical ethnography
descrp. of cultural past based on written records,interv., & archaeo.
anthropological linguistics
understanding lang. and its relation to culture
archaeology
subdis of anthro.-focuses on reconstruction of past cultres based on material remains
prehistoric
societies for which we have no usable written records
artifact
any object made/mod. by human beings- used to refer to objects made by past cultures
urban archaeology
archae. investig. of current-day cities
cultural resource management
protection & manag. of archaeo., archival, & archit. resources
bio/physical anthropology
study of humankind from a bio perspective
paleoanthropology
subdis. of anthro concerned w/ tracing evolution of humankind in fossil record
human variation
subdis. of anthro concerned w/ mapping & explaining phy. diff. among modern human groups
primate
member of bio order of mammals that includes human beings, apes, & monkeys, prosimians(lemurs, tairsirs, etc)
applied anthropology
solution of human problems
forensic anthropology
id of skeletalized or badly decomp. human remains
ethnocentrism
to avoid it (our culture is the right culture)
racism
some human pops are superior to others
biopsychological equality
all human groups have same bio & mental capabilities
racialism
bio fixed races w/ diff moral, intell, & phy charact.-that can be ranked on 1 hierarchy
cultural relativism
no universal standards- all cultures may be evaluated
emic
native's point of view
etic
observer's/outsiders point pf view
indigenous peoples
people who occupied region for long time but who have minority position & little, no influence in gov't of nationstate that controls theri land
fieldwork
source of data, living in culture for 1 yr +
nomothetic
charact. of what makes us human ww
reflexive
reflect back on ourselves
discourse
way of expressing thoughts on subj. verballyin formal, orderly ext.
diachronic
ext thgh time: analyzes subj over period of time
synchronic
happening at same time: analyze what is happening/existingat 1 point in time
aims/goals of cultural anthropology?
*learned
*use symbols & languages
*shared
*adaptive, maladaptive
*fluid, subj to change
*all cultures are competent
*comparative
major ? addressed by discipline
what is it that makes us, as a species, human?
charact. define disc. of anthropolgy?
1. cultural
2. contextual
3. comparative
4. cross-cultural
5. culture as a construct/creation
6. cultural relativism
7. emic/etic
8. holistic
9. fieldwork
10. ethnography
11. participant-obs
12. informants
anthro diff. from other ss & human discp.?
*history is concerned w/ course of key events, dev situations, key figs involved

*sociology focuses on social struct & processes in modern, dev societies

*geography concerns itself w/ place, space & location

*religion concerns itself w/ belief systems based on dogma that est belief
Franz Boas?
*teacher of 1st generation of cultural anthro in US
*put discipline on firm empirical basis
symbol
s/t that stands for s/t else:central to culture
platicity
ability of humans to change behavior in resp. to wide range of envior. demands
cultural ecology
cultural patterns as adaptive resp. to basic problems of human surv & reprod.
cultural materialism
primary task of anthro is to account for sim. & diff. among cultures
neo-evolutionism
historical change of culture from small-scale societies to ext. large-scale societies
neo-Marxism
applying insights of Marxist thought to anthro
sociobiology
explores relationship between human cultural behavior and genetics
ethnoscience
focuses on ways in which mem. of culture classify their world
cognitive anthropology
defines culture in terms of rules and meanings underlying human behavior
ethnobotany
describing ways in which diff. cultures classify plants
ethnomedicine
describing medical systems of diff. cultures
structural anthropology
holds that all cultures reflect sim. deep, underlying patterns and anthros should decipher these patterns
interp/symb anthropology
emphasizes culture as a system of meaning & proposes aim of cult. anthro to interp. meanings
functionalism
specific institutions funct to support struct of society or serve needs of individuals in society
ecological functionalism
holds the ways in whch cultural insti work can best be understood by examining their effects on the envior.
norm
ideal cultural pattern that influences behavior in society
value
what is true, right, and beautiful
subculture
system of percep, values, beliefs, customs that are sig diff from those of a larger, dom culture w/i the same society
fem anthropology
focuses on describing and explaining the social roles of women
innovation
new variation on existing cult. patterns that is accep by other mem of society
diffusion
spread of cultural elements from one culture to another thgh cultural contact
transculturation
transformation of adopted cultural traits, resulting in new cult forms