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81 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
acculturation
the exchange of cultural features that results when groups come into contiuous firsthand contact; the cultural patterns of either or both groups may be changed, but the groups remain distict
core values
key, basic, or central values that integrate a culture and help distinguish if from others
cultural relativism
the position that the values and standards of cultures differ and deserve respect. Extreme relativism argues that cultures should be judged solely by their own standards
cultural rights
doctrine that certain rights are vested in identifiable groups such as religious and ethnic minorities and indigenous societies. Cultural rights include a group's ability to preserve its culture, to raise its children in the ways of its forbears, to continue its language, and not to be deprived of its economic base by the nationstate in which it is located
diffusion
borrowing of cultural traits between societies, either directly or through intermediaries
enculturation
the social process where a culture is learned and transmitted across the generations
ethnocentrism
the tendency to view one's own culture as best and to judge the behavior and beliefs of culturally different ppl by one's own standards
generality
culture pattern or trait that exists in some but not all societies
human rights
doctrine that invokes a realm of justice and morality beyond and superior to particular countries, cultures, and religions. Human rights, usually seen as vested in individuals, would include the right to speak freely, to hold religious beliefs without persecution, and not to be murdered, injured, enslaved, or imprisoned without charge
independent invention
development of the same cultural trait or pattern in separate culturesas a result of comparable needs, circumstances, and solutions
international culture
cultural traditions that extend beyond national boundaries
IPR
intellectual propery rights
core beliefs
national culture
cultural experience, belifs, learned behavior patterns, and values shared by citizens of the same nation
particularity
distinctive or unique culture trait, pattern or integration
subcultures
different cultural traditions associated with subgroups in the same complex society
symbol
something, verbal or nonverbal, that arbitrarily and by convention stands for something else, with which it has no necessary or natural connection
universal
something that exists in every culture
achieved status
social status that comes through talents, choices, actions, and accomplishments, rather than ascription
ascribed status
social status (race, gender) that ppl have little or no choice about occupying
assimilation
process of change that a minority group may experience when it moves to a country where another culture dominates; the minority is incorporated into the dominant culture to the point that it no longer exists as a separte cultural unit
symbol
something, verbal or nonverbal, that arbitrarily and by convention stands for something else, with which it has no necessary or natural connection
colonialism
political, social, and economic, and cultural domination of territory and its ppl by a foreign power over extended amt of time
universal
something that exists in every culture
descent
rule assigned social identity on the basis of some aspect of one's ancestory
discrimination
policies and practices that harm a group and its members
achieved status
social status that comes through talents, choices, actions, and accomplishments, rather than ascription
ethnic group
group distinguished by cultural similarities and differences
ascribed status
social status (race, gender) that ppl have little or no choice about occupying
assimilation
process of change that a minority group may experience when it moves to a country where another culture dominates; the minority is incorporated into the dominant culture to the point that it no longer exists as a separte cultural unit
ethnicity
identification with, and feeling part of, an ethnic group, and exclusion from certain other groups because of this affiliation
hypodecent
rule that automatically places the children of union or mating between members of different socioeconomic groups in teh lesspriviledged group
colonialism
political, social, and economic, and cultural domination of territory and its ppl by a foreign power over extended amt of time
descent
rule assigned social identity on the basis of some aspect of one's ancestory
multiculturalism
the view of cultural diversity in a country as something good and desirable; a multicultural society socializes individuals not only into the dominant culture but also into an ethnic culture
nation
once a synonym for "ethnic group" designating a single culture sharing a language, religion, history, territory, ancestry, and kinship; not synonym for nation-state
discrimination
policies and practices that harm a group and its members
ethnic group
group distinguished by cultural similarities and differences
nationalities
ethnic groups that once had, or wish to have or regain, autonomous political status
nation-state
an autonomous political entity (USA)
ethnicity
identification with, and feeling part of, an ethnic group, and exclusion from certain other groups because of this affiliation
hypodecent
rule that automatically places the children of union or mating between members of different socioeconomic groups in teh lesspriviledged group
multiculturalism
the view of cultural diversity in a country as something good and desirable; a multicultural society socializes individuals not only into the dominant culture but also into an ethnic culture
nation
once a synonym for "ethnic group" designating a single culture sharing a language, religion, history, territory, ancestry, and kinship; not synonym for nation-state
nationalities
ethnic groups that once had, or wish to have or regain, autonomous political status
nation-state
an autonomous political entity (USA)
phenotype
an organisms evident traits, its "manifest biology"-anatomy and physiology
plural society
a society that combines ethnic contrasts and economic interdependence of the ethnic groups
prejudice
devaluing a group because of its assumed behavior, values, capabilities, attitudes, or other attributes
race
an ethnic group assumed to have a biological basis
racism
discrimination against an ethnic group assumed to have a biological basis
refugees
ppl who have been forced or who have chosen to flee a country, to escape persecution or war
social race
a group assumed to have a biological basis but actually perceived and defined in a social context, by a particular culture rather than by scientific criteria
state
complex sociopolitical system that administers a territory and populace with substantial contrasts in occupation, wealth, prestige, and power. An independent, centrally organized political unit; a government. A form of social and political organization with a formal, central government and a division of society into classes
status
any position that determines where someone fits in society; may be ascribed or achieved
stratified
class-structured; stratified societies have marked differences in wealth prestige, and power between social classes
BEV
a rule-governed dialect of American English with roots in southern english. Spoken my African American youth
call systems
systems of communication among nonhuman primates, composed of a limited number of sounds that vary in intensity and duration. Tied to enviromental stimuli
cultural transmission
a basic feature of language; transmission through learning
daughter language
language developing out of the same parent language
diglossia
the existence of high and low dialects of a single language
displacement
a basic feature of languate; the ability to speak of things and events that are not present
ethnosematics
the study of lexical contrasts and classifications in various languages
focal vocabulary
a set of words and distinctions that are particularly important to certain groups such as types of snow to Eskimos
historical linguistics
subdivision of linguistics that studies language over time
honorific
a term used with ppl to honor them (Mr. or Lord0
kinesics
study of communication through body movements, stances, gestures, and facial expressions
language
humans primary means of communication; may be spoken or writen
lexicon
vocabulary. the dictionary containing all the morphemes in a language and their meanings
morphology
study of form; used in linguistics and for form in general
phoneme
significant sound contrast in a language that serves to distinguish meaning, and in minimal pairs
phonemics
the study of the sound contrasts of a particular language
phonetics
study of speech sounds in general; what ppl actually say in various language
phonology
study of sounds used in speech
productivity
the basic feature of language; the ablility to use the rules of one's language to create new expressions comprehensible to other speakers
protolanguage
language ancestral to several daughter language
Sapir-Whorf hypothesis
theory that different languages produce different ways of thinking
semantics
a language's meaning system
sociolinguistics
study of relationships between social and linguistic variation; study of language in its social context
style shift
variations in speech in different contexts
subgroups
languages with in a taxonomy of related language that are most closely related
syntax
the arrangement and order of words in phrases and sentences.