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43 Cards in this Set

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List two subgroups in the traditional classification of primates.
- PROSIMIAN
- ANTRHOPOIDEA
What type of classification would a primate with a grasping tail fall into?
NEW WORLD MONKEY
How do gorillas move around on the ground?
QUADRUPEDALLY

or “knuckle walking”
What are the characteristics of a promiscuous mating system?
- Food is largely distributed
- Independent females
Besides humans, what is the only primate species that lives in cold and snowy climates?
MACAQUES
Orangutans move about by brachiating and suspension. What are the physical traits of hindlimbs and forelimbs that are involved in this type of locomotion?
Longer arms and shorter legs.
What is the basic social unit seen in the majority of primates?
Mother with dependent offspring.
In chimpanzees, which individuals are the dominant members of the community?
There are no dominant members of the chimp community.
What is it called when a primate leaves its biological family?

What is it called when a primate stays with its biological family?
DISPERSAL

NATAL
BABOON BEHAVIOR:

Diet?

Location?

Habitat?
Omnivorous

Found in Africa

Live in grasslands
TRUE OR FALSE:

1) Black and white colobus monkeys are leaf-eating monkeys.

2) Black and white colobus monkeys have cheek pouches.
1 = TRUE

2 = FALSE
Which subgroup of primates have wet noses?
Strepsirrhine
What type of non-human primate can have sex with females even when they’re not in estrus?
Chimpanzees
Prosimians can be both nocturnal and diurnal. Give an example of each.
NOCTURNAL = Microcebus (aka. Mouse lemur)

DIURNAL = Lemur catta (aka. Ring-tailed lemur)
What does natural selection operate on?

What does sexual selection operate on?
Natural selection → behavioral and physical traits

Sexual selection → reproductive organs
List two traits that separate apes and monkeys.
1) TAIL (apes don’t have them and monkeys do)
2) BODY SIZE (apes are large and monkeys are smaller)
List three aspects related to sexual dimorphism.
1) Polygynous mating system
2) Large body size
3) Terrestrial
Which family members have the strongest social bonds among primates?
Mother and infant
Which primate species is classified as both a prosimian and an anthropoid?
TARSIER
Where do tarsiers live?
Southeast Asia
List four types of locomotion and give an example of a primate species for each type.
1) LEAPING (ex. Sifakas)
2) BRACHIATING (ex. Organgutans)
3) TERRESTRIAL (ex. Baboons)
4) KNUCKLE-WALKING (ex. Gorillas)
Which primate species have tooth combs?
- Lemurs
- Galagos
- Tarsiers
What does intra-sexual selection involve?
Male-male combat
What classification do New World Monkeys fall into?
Platyrrhine
List a physical characteristic for spider monkeys, howler monkeys, and capuchin monkeys that makes them each distinctive in the primate world.
1) SPIDER → prehensile tail
2) HOWLER → loud call
3) CAPUCHIN → long tail
Who are chimpanzees’ closest living relative?
BONOBOS
Which primates belong to the subgroup Anthropoidea?
- MONKEYS
- APES
- HUMANS
What is the scientific name for snow monkeys (aka. Macaques)?
Macaca fuscata
Which primate species display remarkable “cultural” behavior?
Macaques
TRUE OR FALSE:

1) Prosimians eat insects but most anthropoids don’t.

2) Prosimians are arboreal but most anthropoids aren’t.
1 = FALSE

2 = FALSE
Where do each of the following species live?

- Howler monkeys
- Gorillas
- Ring-tailed lemurs
- Bonobos
- Siamangs
- Orangutans
- Howler monkeys → Central America
- Gorillas → Africa
- Ring-tailed lemurs → Madagascar
- Bonobos → Borneo
- Siamangs → India
- Orangutans → Southeast Asia
Name two physical traits that differentiate apes from humans.
1) Brain size
2) Feet (humans don’t have grasping ability)
Describe the 5 physical traits that set primates apart from other mammals and explain the functional advantages of each.
1) OPPOSABLE THUMBS: tool use and ability to grasp and climb
2) LARGE BRAIN (relative to body size): smarter
3) BINOCULAR VISION: depth perception
4) NAILS (instead of claws): dexterity
5) ERECTED POSTURE: use of hands, extended vision, ability to run faster
Draw the classification chart that shows the four major primate groups.
MAJOR GROUPS:
- Strepsirrhini
- Platyrhini
- Cercopithecoidea
- Hominoidea
How is infanticide a reproductive strategy?
It promotes genetic superiority; eliminate competition and ensure that your own genes survive.
What are the adaptive advantages of living in social groups?
- Defense of resources against rival troops
- Defense against predators = safety in numbers
- Social control through dominance hierarchies
- Group cohesion achieved through grooming
- Protecting/raising young make mother-infant bonds become secure
Why do primates engage in mutual grooming?

Who is involved?

Is it altruism?
- Mutual grooming = social cement
- Establishing and maintaining bonds and dominance hierarchies
- Reconciliation after conflicts
- Sign of affection

All members of community involved.

Can be form of altruism because time spent grooming might have been used for other activities (ex. search for food)
Explain the patterns of altruistic behavior.

What factors are involved?

Give an example from the book.
ALTRUISTIC BEHAVIOR: benefits the fitness of the recipient at a cost to the fitness of the actor.

- Whether or not you help depends on: relatedness, recipient’s benefits (R), and actor’s costs (A).
- Evolves through kin selection: more likely to help if closely related.
- Aspects: grooming, sharing food, warning calls, backing up others, etc.
- Example: female baboon tries to intervene when a male in her group is being attacked by a hyena.
Compare reproductive strategies between males and females.
FEMALES
- Parental investment: increase offspring’s chances of survival
- Promiscuous mating to ensure fertilization
- Display secondary sexual characteristics to make themselves more attractive/alert males that they’re ovulating (ex. sexual swelling)

MALES
- Sperm Competition: amount of sperm that they produce
- Male control polygyny: active defense of mates
- Resource-defense polygyny: active defense or resources, which attracts females
- Male-dominance polygyny: female mate choice
A number of primate “cultures” are found in both chimpanzees and macaques. Give an example of cultural behavior for each.
MACAQUES: developed method for sorting wheat from sand by dropping mixture in water and allowing wheat to float and the sand to sink. Others eventually copied behavior.

CHIMPS: learned to fish termites out of their nests using sticks. Eventually, mothers started teaching it to offspring.
What aspects are involved in dominance hierarchy?
- Mother’s social position
- Age
- Intelligence
- Motivation
- Body mass
- Aggression
- Time spent in the group
- Sex
MAIM BATS!
Ecology and some skeletal biology are involved in the “Arboreal hypothesis.” Describe the adaptive mechanism of this hypothesis.
ARBOREAL HYPOTHESIS: living in trees was most important factor in primate evolution.

- Need depth perception and binocular vision to move through trees, look out for predators, etc.
- Need grasping hands and feet with nails instead of claws
- Generalized teeth for varying diet
Describe the reproduction strategy, “scramble competition” that affects sexual dimorphism.
Polygyny in which males make no effort to defend individual exclusive mating territories, but instead attempt to outrace their competitors to receptive females.