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40 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Which classification does Cercopithecoidea fall into?
CATARRHINI

OR

HAPLORRHINI
What characteristic makes Tarsiiformes prosimians?
GROOMING CLAW
The first primate species existed 65mya. What type of diet did it have?
INSECTIVOROUS

OR

FRUGIVOROUS

OR

FOLIVOROUS
TRUE OR FALSE

Altruistic behavior is likely to be passed on when:
T or F: Costs are LOW, benefits are HIGH, and members are closely RELATED.
T or F: Costs and benefits are LOW and members are not related.
TRUE: Costs are LOW, benefits are HIGH, and members are closely RELATED.

FALSE: Costs and benefits are LOW and members are not related.
What does inclusive fitness directly operate within?
INDIVIDUAL’S OFFSPRING
What is mostly involved in intrasexual selection in primates?
MALE-MALE COMBAT
List three factors related to sexual dimorphism.
1) Polygynous mating system
2) Large body size
3) Terrestrial
What are the external aspects of communication?
- Vocal
- Facial expressions
- Body gesturing
- Scent marking
What is the most developed mode of communication in primates?
VOCAL
TRUE OR FALSE

T or F: Vocal communication is learned.
T or F: Vocal communication is genetic.
TRUE: Vocal communication is learned.

FALSE: Vocal communication is genetic.
In primates, what is the area that contains the highest concentration of predictable resources called?
CORE AREA
What is the formula for biodiversity?
BIODIVERSITY = SPECIATION – EXTINCTION
When does scramble competition occur?

When does contest competition occur?
SCRAMBLE competition occurs when food is evenly distributed.

CONTEST competition occurs when resources are monopolizable.
What do affiliative behaviors enhance?
GROUP COHESIVENESS
When does indirect competition in males occur?
When there are more females
List at least 2 reproductive strategies that affect sexual dimorphism.

Give a brief explanation of each.

(4 in total)
1) SPERM COMPETITION: amount of sperm that they produce

2) RESOURCE DEFENSE POLYGYNY: active defense or resources (which in turn attracts females)

3) MALE-DOMINANCE POLYGYNY: female mate choice

4) MALE-CONTROL POLYGYNY: active defense of mates
List three aspects of male relationships.
1) Affiliation
2) Association
3) Coalition
What are the two ways through which males gain females?
1) Female choice
2) Power
List 2 behavioral aspects of primate social interaction that are NOT related to sex.
1) Grooming
2) Sharing food (mom and baby)
List 2 aspects of altruistic behavior.

List 2 conditions that favor altruistic behavior.
ASPECTS:
1) Alarm calls
2) Grooming

CONDITIONS:
1) ↓ costs and ↑ benefits
2) Relatedness
List 2 characteristic traits of primates and give a functional advantage of each.
1) OPPOSABLE THUMBS = ability to grasp

2) LARGE BRAIN (relative to body size) = ↑ cognitive ability
What are the 3 factors that the reproductive success of high-ranking males depends on?
1) Female choice
2) Life history
3) Sneaker males
What are the four major groups of primates?
1) Strepsirrhini
2) Platyrrhini
3) Cercopithecoidea
4) Hominoidea
What does sexual dimorphism increase?
Male-male competition
What does diurnality and group living reduce?
Risk of predation
What does male or female dispersal reduce?
Inbreeding
Describe the tendency of each of the following traits.

1) Limbs and locomotion
2) Teeth and diet
3) Activity
1) Limbs and locomotion = ERECTED POSTURE

2) Teeth and diet = OMNIVOROUS DIET

3) Activity = DIRUNALITY
List the 3 hypotheses regarding primate evolution.
1) Arboreal
2) Visual predator
3) Angiosperm
What 3 factors are related to sexual dimorphism?
1) Polygyny
2) Large body size
3) Terrestrial
Name the three apes that are “able to understand human language.”
1) Kanzi
2) Koko
3) Nim
Explain why dominance hierarchy is an adaptive behavior, not an evolutionary mechanism.

What factors make an individual dominant over the other individuals?
?
What factors determine social structure in primates?

Describe the adaptive advantages to living in social groups.
FACTORS:
1) Food distribution
2) Relationship with others
3) Predation

ADVANTAGES:
- Defense of resources
- Defense against predators = safety in numbers
- Social control through dominance hierarchies
- Group cohesion (achieved through grooming)
Describe the difference in reproductive strategies between gorillas and chimps in terms physical and behavior.
Gorillas: smaller testes and polygyny (contest competition)

Chimps: swollen genitals on females and scramble competition
Tell me about mutual grooming.

Who’s involved?

Is grooming an altruistic behavior?
- Mutual grooming = social cement
- Establishing and maintaining bonds and dominance hierarchies
- Reconciliation after conflicts
- Sign of affection

All members of community involved.

Can be form of altruism because time spent grooming might have been used for other activities (ex. search for food)
For conservation to work, what do you think about bottom-up and top-down conservation strategies?
?
Describe how social structure is influenced by food distribution, relationships with others, and predation.
1) Resource distribution:
- Abundant leaves support larger groups
- Clumped fruits/nuts for smaller groups

2) Relationships with others:
- Reduced risk of predation
- Dominance hierarchy

3) Predation: ?
How is infanticide a reproductive strategy?
It promotes genetic superiority by eliminating competition and ensuring survival of own genes.

Also used to attract females (appear more aggressive/dominant, better able to protect, strong fitness, etc.)
What are the 4 basic elements of communication systems?
1) Signals: acts of communication
2) Motivation: internal state of the sender
3) Meaning: interpretation by receiver
4) Function: adaptive advantages of the messages
What are threats to primates?

What are threats to biodiversity?

Why do we need to protect and conserve them as a whole?
Primates
- Parasites
- Overhunting
- Capture
(and everything below)

Biodiversity
- Human overpopulation
- Habitat fragmentation
- Habitat deforestation
- Species invasion
- Climatic change

WHY?
- Intro of disease
- Intro of invasive species
- Habitat disturbance
Describe the 5 physical traits that set primates apart from other mammals and explain the functional advantages of each.
1) OPPOSABLE THUMBS: tool use and ability to grasp and climb
2) LARGE BRAIN (relative to body size): smarter
3) BINOCULAR VISION: depth perception
4) NAILS (instead of claws): dexterity
5) ERECTED POSTURE: use of hands, extended vision, ability to run faster