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70 Cards in this Set

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What are the three types of tourists?
Drifters, mass tourists, individual mass tourists, explorers
Why do people choose to go out?
People like to say "I was there" it is a feeling of authenticity.
What is a mass tourist?
People who travel under institution for leisurely time and for short "get aways"
Include package tours
What is a drifter?
A drifter is someone who goes from place to place with no real purpose, just travels everyhwhere, no true home... Feeds off of cultures and demaciates them. Uninstitutionalized.
What is an explorer?
An explorer does not have boundaries, a traveller
Why do people travel?
A feeling of authenticity and a feeling of "I was there"
The Cannibal Tours: How does this explain mass tourism?
Tourists go to a place where Cannibalism is practiced and in return are the Cannibals. Feeding off of their culture... Symbolic cannibals, damaging local cultures, polluting the world in quest.
How do the Cannibals cannibalize the culture?
They eat away at the culture in order to learn more, but are destroying the standard of living.. Making the people worry themselves about Status and money... not originally a part of culture. PEOPLE are affected by Tourist and ACCOMODATE for tourists.
What are some impacts of mass tourism?
People are forced to meet the needs of tourists.. Making high rise hotels or changing the environment for tourism. Dramatic and destructive cultural change, dependency on tourists and industry, ENVIRONMENTAL DAMAGE!!
The Spiritual house and the People on the Septik River?
People who are considered spirits or the dead are let into the Spiritual House. But it is not to be opened.
What is the world right now? What is a global village?
The world is a global economic network, and it is not a global village. A global village is a small space where everyone is welcome, and there are no big differences, and people are friendly neighbors.
What is the downside about the world being a global network?
World of priviledge and exclusion, some places are centers in the world and other places are less in to contact with the world. People in these worlds enter and exit with difficulty.
What are characteristics about the centers of the world?
The "centers" of the world are easy to get into and they are full of constant communication and are extremely wealthy.
There is major distance due to this globalization, can you describe this?
A financial specialist will communicate with close friends, colleagues, and with family from 1000s of miles away but will not even speak to the people of poverty living right outside of their buildings...
The world is expanding in what ways?
People in Hong Kong can communicate with people in North America to do business but our world is divided due to the wealthy and the poor...
How is the world divided?
More than 1.2 billion people live on 1 dollar a day. The life expectancy of people in Mozambique is about 37 years compared to people in Japan. The life expectancy is around 81 years. ALSO, people want new identities created or to maintain the identity they already have...
How have the colonies done? What is the usual outcome of the colonies?
The colonies have done well like Korea and Singapore... but many colonies are poor while the richest nations still control them even if the colonies are independent.
What is gross national income?
Total value of all countries production and a rough estimate of national prosperity.
How was the U.S. gross national income compared to other countries?
In 2005, the GNI of the US was high, but 80 of the 208 had less than 5000 dollars as a nation.
How have the Chinese prospered?
The Chinese were poor with living on a dollar a day, and now that has decreased dramaticially.
Where the burden fallen because of the worlds expansion?
The burden has fallen on the indigenous peoples, and the cultural identity of these peoples is changing. THIS IS A CHALLENGE FROM GLOBALIZATION!!!
Describe the development of more developed countries vs. the less developed?
Post war made people move from violence into new ways of living. Eastern and Western sides wanted to influence post colonies and create political allies or trading partners, and give better lives to the worlds poor?
Explain the modernization theory.
The modernization theory says that those poor nations with underdeveloped backward economies should become rich through repeating the actions of the wealthy.
How did the theory play itself out?
People could have new roads, factories, new farming techniques, and cultivate cash crops. The countries should just jump into this work.
What would be the potential benefits of the modernization theory?
Increased standard of living and wealth. And wealthy nations got new markets for products, and money was used to support an elite lifestyle .
What were the conflicts of the the modernization theory?
Poor nations were a part of the theory but they couldn't really act on becoming wealthy, they were still colonized after colonization. They had no where to colonize or exploit themselves because not rich enough.
Who led the human needs approach? When did the human needs approach begin?
Around 1972 to 1973, the world bank worked on needs, and it was lead by Robert McNamara, the world bank president.
What was the goal of the world bank and the human needs approach?
The world bank wanted to focus on the basic needs of the poor... and the Human needs approach thought that the Development or Modernization Theory failed because it did not focus on the rural poor and increasing their capacity to do work in the economy. Development focused on jumping into large scale projects and technological change.
What were the benefits of the human needs approach?
Ensuring the poor access to land, improving, simple farming techniques, access to pure water, basic education, basic health or sanitation, and more with the people... Allowing them to develop at their own pace...
How have anthropologists become prominent with these efforts of developent, and human needs approaches?
Anthropologists became prominent by end of 1980, there were only a few now there are more than 50 with helping development aid.
What is development aid?
Development aid is to help areas with lack of financial wealth, with small plants and infrastructure and will give money to these efforts. So wealth can increase through industrialization.
Around 1980, what happened with the Human needs approach?
1. Failure still with economy, some communities improved, donor governments disliked because of lack of publicity. 2. expensive, and receiving governments thought the money was too little. GROUPS ALSO HAD LITTLE POLITICAL POWER...
What is structural adjustment?
It began with neoliberalism and it is a series of political and economic policies promoting free trade, initiative, and minimal government regulation. The goal is to oppose aid to the poor and oppose state control.
What are the details behind the structural adjustment approach?
Sell state owned places, reduce subsidy on local business, reduce education, health and social program spending.
What are the conflicts of the structural adjustment approach?
It increases poverty and inequality, some think earlier ideas were not reachable and that the people should begin as they once were... They thought the free markets will increase industry, increase wealth, and increase entrepeneurship. If there is not sharing with other people the better.
Explain how the U.S. is divided?
The U.S. has different social classes where one person can be working their way up at 5 dollars an hour and another person can be a mogul with over 100,000 dollars.
What is social stratification?
Social stratification is a permanent unequal distribution of goods and services in a society. The ways in which this distribution takes place depends on the org of the production, cultural values, and the means at which each person can achieve social goals in society.
What are the two different types of social stratification?
Social stratification can be divided into class systems and caste systems.
What is a class?
A class is a category of persons who all have about the same opportunity to obtain economic resources, power , and prestige. And who are ranked high and low in relation to each other.
What does a class system allow for?
A class system allows for movement between the classes or social mobility.
What are class systems sometimes called?
Class systems are sometimes called open systems.
What are the limitations of class systems?
The limitations of class systems, or open systems is that they can sometimes be constraints on the system, on movement from one clas to another.
What is a closed stratification system?
A closed stratification system is one that has little or no possibility of movement from one class to another.
What is another name for a closed stratification systm?
It is a caste system.
What is unique about society and division?
No society has devised a successful means of organizing a large population without stratification and inequality.
What are the two theories on social stratification?
Functionalism and the Karl Marx theory are the main theories on social stratification.
Explain functionalism:
Functionalism explains how social stratification can have some social functions. The promise of economic and social rewards even if inequality motivates people to be involved in risky jobs or jobs with long training.
According to the functionalism theory how does the society benefit?
The society benefits because people become motivated to do jobs as doctors even though it requires 11 or more years of training.
How does social stratification not always serve the general good?
School teachers, nurses, with difficult jobs and long training do not get rewarded as much. For example, an inadequate boss.
Which society has social stratification?
The United States is a good example of a society with social stratification. An open system or class system with social mobility.
How can all people benefit from a functionalist perspective?
All of societys members must have the same economic and social opportunities. A level playing field does not exist in a complex society.
What determines the source of opportunities available to people in a stratified society?
Family background, connections, gender, ethnicity, race, accumulated wealth.
What feeling besides motivation comes with inequality?
Resentment accompanies a stratified society.
How do ascribed factors in a society lead to resentment? What is an ascribed factor?
When a society is based on gender, race or caste that the person represents, that can lead to resentment within in the society. Ascribed factors are things someone comes into the world with, so if someone is born White, they are Caucasian in a society.
What happens when inequalities become large in a stratified society?
Resentment between people of different wealth and power is evident.
How does Gerald Berreman view social stratification?
Gerald Berreman is an anthropologist that views social stratification as painful, damaging, and unjust and attributes most of the conflict in society such as crime, ethnic conflict, civil war, and international war as a form of organized and systemic inequality.
What is organized and systemic inequality?
A constant form of inequality developed by social stratification.
What is the idea that social stratification causes conflict and instability? Who was it created by?
Karl Marx created the conflict theory.
What is the main points behind conflict theory?
Conflict theory says that people are in constant struggle for scarce goods and services in complex society.
Why does conflict arise in social stratification according to the Marxist Theory?
Because people with accrued power, wealth, and prestige use assets and power to maintain control over the places with coercion and ideology.
What are both ideas lacking? The Functionalist and Marxist ideas?
The Functionalist idea is lacking the important aspect of structural conflict. And the Marxist idea is lacking the idea of solidarity among each caste, ethnic, and class line...
What is religion?
Religion is ubiqituous, diverse, influential.
What are the 3 phases of a rite of passage
seperation, liminal, reincorporation
What is seperation
Seperation means the person gets seperated from community or old status.
What is liminal
Liminal means the person gets rid of old status from the beginning and enters into a new one. This is the second stage.
What is reinroporation?
reincorporation is the stage where the person gets back with the communtiy with new status.
What are the three religious functions?
Intellectual cognitive theory, psychological theory of of religion, and sociological theory.
The concept lifeworld refers to?
The particular circumstances in which an individual finds him or herself, experiences the world, and makes sense of the predicaments surrounding contemporary life.
The term captialism refers to ?q
An economic system that is dominated by the supply and demand price mechanism and the way of life that deveoped in response and in service to the market.
According to Professor Ken's lecture, what was the Indonesian artist responding to when he wrapped his paintings in sculptures in black cloth?
New of indonesians being murdered by the state