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85 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Among many pastoralists and horticulturalists, such as the Nuer of East Africa, social disputes are resolved
a. through a lengthy court process
b. through hereditary mediators
c. through painful ordeals
d. through warfare
b. through hereditary mediators
Which of the following was NOT associated with early agricultural populations?
a. increased population density
b. a more sedentary way of life
c. a more nutritious diet
d. settlements near water sources
c. a more nutritious diet
Political leaders in foraging bands typically
a. maintain power by developing strong ties with the warrior/hunting clan
b. maintain control by establishing a power base outside their kin group
c. are the most dominant males from the most powerful descent group
d. are mediators, having no means of forcing people to follow their decisions
d. are mediators, having no means of forcing people to follow their decisions
Within pastoral cultures, economic status and prestige are based on
a. size of the herd
b. territory covered in seasonal rounds
c. material wealth and the accumulation of many cultural goods
d. the number of jewels that adorn the women
a. size of the herd
Horticulturalists, like the Yanomamo from South America
a. live in the same home and use the same garden plots for generations
b. cultivate new garden sites every 2-8 years
c. plow their fields with the use of the ox
d. irrigate their crops on a regular basis
b. cultivate new garden sites every 2-8 years
The ability to remains sedentary in preagricultural societies is most likely associated with
a. the disappearance of aquatic resources such as fish and turtle
b. the nearness of high-yield or reliable resources
c. a natural desire to settle in one place
d. large herds of migrating animals to follow
b. the nearness of high-yield or reliable resources
The artifact tradition of Homo neandertalensis was mostly
a. Olduwan
b. Acheulean
c. Mousterian
d. crude pebble technology
c. Mousterian
Cultural Anthropologists are concerned with
a. the function of social institutions
b. the meaning that culture gives to an experience
c. the structure and change in a culture over time
d. all of the above
d. all of the above
The Australopithecine, as a species, probably evolved and adapted to which environment?
a. tropical rain forest
b. open savannah
c. forested savannah
d. arboreal wetlands
b. open savannah
The opening in the base of the skull through which the spinal cord passes en route to the brain is the
a. foramen spinosum
b. foramen magnum
c. magna anthropologica
d. magna carta
b. foramen magnum
Who was the primatologist who lived with and studied chimpanzees in Tanzania?
a. Louis Leakey
b. Margaret Mead
c. Bronislaw Malowinski
d. Jane Goodall
d. Jane Goodall
Why are maladaptive customs likely to disappear from society?
a. because no one likes them
b. because they diminish the chances of survival and reproduction
c. because they are immediately destructive to the group
d. because they are too unique for the group
b. because they diminish the chances of survival and reproduction
The most important source of genetic variety in any population is:
a. catastrophism
b. dominance of traits
c. mutation
d. uniformity
c. mutation
Which of the following statements is TRUE about the performance on an I.Q. test?
a. all African Americans and Native Americans score lower than the average European American
b. I.Q. tests measure enculturation, not innate mental capacity
c. most standardized tests are designed with the target population in mind
d. tests have been constructed based on the average European American female intellectual capacity
b. I.Q. tests measure enculturation, not innate mental capacity
High crop yields can encourage innovation because
a. more protein is available so the brain works more efficiently
b. surplus creates incentives for long distance trade
c. surplus allows some people to specialize and pursue non-agricultural activities
d. people may worship a plant goddess
c. surplus allows some people to specialize and pursue non-agricultural activities
A distinctive set of standards and behavior patterns by which a group within a larger society operates, that does not go against the mainstream, but may share a common history, language, foodways or belief system is called a
a. subculture
b. counter-culture
c. pluralistic society
d. majority or minority group
a. subculture
Levirate is a custom that requires:
a. a women marry her deceased sister’s husband
b. a man take a boy as his second wife
c. a man marry his deceased brother’s wife
d. a girl marry her cross-cousin
c. a man marry his deceased brother’s wife
Redistribution of wealth is achieved through balanced reciprocity in cultural rituals such as:
a. kula ring and potlatch
b. phenomes and morphs
c. shifting agriculture
d. taboos
a. kula ring and potlatch
The introduction of alleles from the gene pool of one population into that of another that tends to decrease genetic differences is
a. mutation
b. genetic drift
c. gene flow
d. natural selection
c. gene flow
In North America what two animals were the earliest known major domesticates?
a. dog and turkey
b. dog and rabbit
c. cat and turkey
e. dog and cat
a. dog and turkey
Which of the following is NOT a form of absolute or chronometric dating
a. thermoluminescence
b. dating based on site stratigraphy
c. radiocarbon dating
d. uranium-series dating
b. dating based on site stratigraphy
The broad-spectrum revolution refers to the period when
a. Australopithecines, Homo sapiens, Homo neandertalensis and Homo erectus coexisted
b. Homo sapiens populations overtook Neandertals caves and began cave art
c. glacial retreat resulted in the exploitation and availability of new food resources
d. primates developed the ability to see colors more clearly, hence a wider variety of foods could be exploited
c. glacial retreat resulted in the exploitation and availability of new food resources
The modern debate about the Neandertal’s relationship to modern humans, focuses on whether Neandertals
a. were modern humans or a Homo erectus hybrid
b. are isolated ancestors of the Caucasian race or more general ancestors
c. are the founders of the Native American populations
d. are directly in the evolutionary line of modern humans or an evolutionary dead-end
d. are directly in the evolutionary line of modern humans or an evolutionary dead-end
Which was the first hominid to extend its range beyond Africa?
a. Australopithecus
b. Homo erectus
c. Homo neandertalensis
d. Homo sapiens
b. Homo erectus
Charles Darwin proposed ___________ was the mechanism behind evolution.
a. inclusive fitness
b. natural selection
c. independent assortment
d. uniformitarianism
b. natural selection
The position of the foramen magnum on the Australopithecine discovered by Raymond Dart convinced him that the creature, known as the Taung child, was
a. an ape
b. quadrupedal
c. bipedal
d. 65 million years old
c. bipedal
American racial categories are
a. culturally arbitrary, even though most people assume them to be scientifically accurate
b. applied to endogamous breeding populations
c. based on genetics alone
d. are limited to White, Hispanic and African American
a. culturally arbitrary, even though most people assume them to be scientifically accurate
. A society composed of several groups that differ in their access to resources, power and prestige is said to be
a. stratified
b. egalitarian
c. open
d. immoral
a. stratified
Magic and religion are similar in that both
a. attempts to control events by exercising authority
b. are practiced mainly by full time specialists who are ranked hierarchically
c. attempt to provide an explanation for events that seem inexplicable and a means of social control
c. attempt to provide an explanation for events that seem inexplicable and a means of social control
Gregor Mendel discovered the principle of ____________, which states that one trait may dominate another.
a. dominance and recessiveness
b. codominant alleles
c. bipolar reproduction
d. retrograde evolution
a. dominance and recessiveness
Which of the following is NOT true of the Neolithic Revolution?
a. it saw the invention of plant and animal domestication
b. it brought the origins of a food production economy
c. it occurred from 12,000-7,000 BC in several independent locations
d. it rarely occurred in locations near major water sources
d. it rarely occurred in locations near major water sources
This New World city was actually larger than Imperial Rome at its height and became a great trade center in Mesoamerica.
a. Tikal
b. Kebara
c. Teotihuacan
d. Monte Verde
c. Teotihuacan
Anthropologists suggest that art
a. expresses the traditions and sentiments of a culture
b. is never intended to mock or offend
c. is not related to any other aspect of culture
a. expresses the traditions and sentiments of a culture
In a patrilineal society, children in each generation belong to the kin group of
a. their mother
b. their mother’s brother (uncle)
c. their material grandparents
d. their father
d. their father
Chiefdoms, unlike state level societies, are based on
a. a complex bureaucracy
b. conquest in war
c. kinship and hereditary rules
d. achieved political status
c. kinship and hereditary rules
Chiefdoms
a. are associated with foragers
b. lack hereditary political positions
c. tend to have an economy based on redistribution
d. are associated with agriculturalists
c. tend to have an economy based on redistribution
Anthropology is different from other disciplines that study humans because
a. it was the first science to analyze human diversity
b. it synthesizes data from many fields in an effort to describe human behavior in a holistic manner
c. the use of “culture-bound” theories enables the anthropologist to conduct value-free research
d. it requires one of the longest periods of academic training
b. it synthesizes data from many fields in an effort to describe human behavior in a holistic manner
The use of intensive irrigation in agriculture is often associated with
a. slash and burn farming
b. the increase of nomadism
c. the rise of sedentary populations
d. the frequent change of garden sites
c. the rise of sedentary populations
The most significant difference between states, bands and chiefdoms is
a. bands are stratified populations
b. Big Men often lead chiefdoms into state-level society
c. states are organized territorially, rather than by kinship and/or descent
d. states are based on kinship and/or descent rather than territory
c. states are organized territorially, rather than by kinship and/or descent
An archaeologist might attempt to
a. study material remains to reconstruct past cultures
b. analyze present languages to reconstruct when they diverged from a parent language
c. study the behavior of primates
d. prepare an in-depth study of present-day cultures through participant-observation
a. study material remains to reconstruct past cultures
Band organization is associated with
a. pastoralists
b. hunter-gatherers
c. horticulturalists
d. agriculturalists
b. hunter-gatherers
human paleontologist would be interested in
a. primates
b. cultural systems
c. fossil evidence of humans
d. sociological relationships
c. fossil evidence of humans
Which subsistence technology characterizes people who live by collecting naturally occurring plants and animals?
a. pastoralists
b. horticulturalists
c. agriculturalists
d. foragers
d. foragers
A sociolinguist focuses on
a. actual speech in its social context
b. cross-cultural comparisons of phonetic distinctions
c. the universal grammar of language
d. linguistic competence of gibbons
a. actual speech in its social context
Which process results in cellular reproduction or growth involving the duplication of chromosome pairs?
a. phenotosis
b. allele repatriation
c. mitosis
d. budding
c. mitosis
According to the way it is defined by most of the world’s religions, the supernatural is
a. unverifiable
b. human in shape
c. directly related to the elite in each culture
d. masculine
b. human in shape
The study of cultures of the recent past through accounts and archival material left by explorers, missionaries and traders is called
a. ethnohistory
b. folklore
c. research designs
d. social change analysis
a. ethnohistory
Which of the following would NOT be considered part of biological (physical) anthropology?
a. primatology
b. human paleontology
c. forensic anthropology
d. ethnohistory
d. ethnohistory
Exogamy is adaptive because it
a. increases the number of individuals on whom one can rely in time of need
b. increases the likelihood of isolation
c. impedes peaceful relations among social groups promoting population expansion
d. is an important causal factor in the origin of agriculture
a. increases the number of individuals on whom one can rely in time of need
Rules of descent
a. shape the composition of land-holding units
b. specify membership in a kin group
c. regulate the transmission of property and authority
d. all of the above
d. all of the above
Which of the following fields is BEST described as the study of the emergence and evolution of humans?
a. primatology
b. paleoanthropology
c. human variation
d. archaeology
b. paleoanthropology
Many cultures, including Latino Americans and Eastern cultures, have the view that the body should be kept in:
a. equilibrium or balance
b. cleansed state
c. balance with nature
d. Shapely and beautiful form
a. equilibrium or balance
Humans’ major mode of adaptation, which enables them to live effectively in diverse environments is
a. body hair and specialized teeth
b. bipedal locomotion
c. sweat glands
d. culture
d. culture
The observation that males and females of the species exhibit marked difference in size and appearance is referred to as
a. physiological differences
b. gynotypic difference
c. sexual dimorphism
d. chromosomal differences
c. sexual dimorphism
The term totem refers to
a. an object considered taboo
b. any object with magical powers associated with moieties
c. any animal or plant symbolizing a social grouping
d. a symbolic gift to show ones’ good intentions
c. any animal or plant symbolizing a social grouping
Psychological anthropologists, like Abram Kardiner, suggest that art, like religions:
a. expresses the typical motives, anxiety’s and conflicts of a people in a culture
b. reveals repressed feelings and high aggression
c. is not related to any other aspect of culture
d. is a camouflages for real issues of concern in a culture
a. expresses the typical motives, anxiety’s and conflicts of a people in a culture
This is a means to determine guilt or innocence by submitting the accused to a dangerous or painful test believed to be under supernatural control
a. ritual
b. adjudication
c. resolution
d. ordeal
d. ordeal
Animatism may be best defined as
a. a worship of living beings
b. a belief in an impersonal supernatural power
c. a belief in the ultimate oneness of all creatures
d. the worship of inanimate objects
c. a belief in an impersonal supernatural power
The main evolutionary thrust of the Homo line was
a. brain size
b. childbirth
c. hyoid bone
d. masicatory features
a. brain size
Undisputed examples of modern looking humans Homo sapiens sapiens emerged
a. 165,000 years ago
b. 5000 years ago
c. 50,000 years ago
d. 10,000 years ago
c. 50,000 years ago
A doctrine by which one group asserts its “biological” superiority over another, is called
a. racism
b. prejudice
c. cultural relativism
d. polymorphic
a. racism
________________ is a term used by both anthropologists and psychologists to describe development, through the influence of parents and other people, of patterns of behavior in children that conform to cultural expectations.
a. socialization
b. conservation
c. repression
d. socialism
socialization
It is speculated that people in pre-industrial societies resort to violence
a. out of self defense
b. when inspired by their dreams
c. as an unconscious means of population control
d. to hedge against the unpredictability of natural disasters
d. to hedge against the unpredictability of natural disasters
Most people in the United States practice which kinship/descent system
a. bilateral
b. unilateral
c. double
d. ambilineal
a. bilateral
A oath is an act that
a. is a form of negotiation
b. the act of calling upon a deity to bear witness to the truth of what one says
c. similar to an ordeal
d. a process or reconciliation
b. the act of calling upon a deity to bear witness to the truth of what one says
In most societies ghosts resemble
a. close friends and relatives
b. totems
c. animals
d. Casper
a. close friends and relatives
A person with an ethnocentric view of another culture:
a. Believes other cultures to be immoral, incorrect, or inferior based on one’s own culture
b. Focuses specifically on ethnicity issues
c. Compares and contrasts ethnic groups
d. Makes decisions about how people should be divided into ethnic groups
a. Believes other cultures to be immoral, incorrect, or inferior based on one’s own culture
Polyandry is the marriage of
a. two men
b. a group of men and women
c. one man to more than one woman at one time
d. one woman to more than one man at one time
d. one woman to more than one man at one time
Gracile australipithecines are usually are usually differentiated from robust australipithecines by their
a. heavy dentition and large faces
b. lighter dentition and smaller faces
c. bipedalism
d. opposable thumbs
b. lighter dentition and smaller faces
Monotheistic religions (Christianity, Judaism, Islam) generally have beliefs in ______________, whereas polytheistic religions generally have beliefs in____________:

a. a supreme supernatural being together with lower-ranked supernaturals, many important gods with no one as supreme.
b. only one supernatural being, forces of nature
c. a dual existence for all living things, a supreme being together with lower ranked supernaturals
a. a supreme supernatural being together with lower-ranked supernaturals, many important gods with no one as supreme.
Marriage includes two factors
a. economic and kinship considerations
b. economic and land-ownership considerations
c. sexual and economic considerations
d. sexual and kinship considerations
c. sexual and economic considerations
. What factor plays the most prevalent role in labor assignments cross-culturally?
a. age
b. gender
c. tallness
d. strength
b. gender
Many cultures, including Latino Americans and Eastern cultures, have the view that the body should be kept in:
a. equilibrium or balance
b. cleansed state
c. balance with nature
d. Shapely and beautiful form
a. equilibrium or balance
Humans’ major mode of adaptation, which enables them to live effectively in diverse environments is
a. body hair and specialized teeth
b. bipedal locomotion
c. sweat glands
d. culture
d. culture
The observation that males and females of the species exhibit marked difference in size and appearance is referred to as
a. physiological differences
b. gynotypic difference
c. sexual dimorphism
d. chromosomal differences
c. sexual dimorphism
The term totem refers to
a. an object considered taboo
b. any object with magical powers associated with moieties
c. any animal or plant symbolizing a social grouping
d. a symbolic gift to show ones’ good intentions
c. any animal or plant symbolizing a social grouping
Psychological anthropologists, like Abram Kardiner, suggest that art, like religions:
a. expresses the typical motives, anxiety’s and conflicts of a people in a culture
b. reveals repressed feelings and high aggression
c. is not related to any other aspect of culture
d. is a camouflages for real issues of concern in a culture
a. expresses the typical motives, anxiety’s and conflicts of a people in a culture
This is a means to determine guilt or innocence by submitting the accused to a dangerous or painful test believed to be under supernatural control
a. ritual
b. adjudication
c. resolution
d. ordeal
d. ordeal
Animatism may be best defined as
a. a worship of living beings
b. a belief in an impersonal supernatural power
c. a belief in the ultimate oneness of all creatures
d. the worship of inanimate objects
The main evolutionary thrust of the Homo line was
a. brain size
b. childbirth
c. hyoid bone
d. masicatory features
doctrine by which one group asserts its “biological” superiority over another, is called
a. racism
b. prejudice
c. cultural relativism
d. polymorphic
a. racism
________________ is a term used by both anthropologists and psychologists to describe development, through the influence of parents and other people, of patterns of behavior in children that conform to cultural expectations.
a. socialization
b. conservation
c. repression
d. socialism
a. socialization
It is speculated that people in pre-industrial societies resort to violence
a. out of self defense
b. when inspired by their dreams
c. as an unconscious means of population control
d. to hedge against the unpredictability of natural disasters
d. to hedge against the unpredictability of natural disasters
Most people in the United States practice which kinship/descent system
a. bilateral
b. unilateral
c. double
d. ambilineal
a. bilateral
A oath is an act that
a. is a form of negotiation
b. the act of calling upon a deity to bear witness to the truth of what one says
c. similar to an ordeal
d. a process or reconciliation
b. the act of calling upon a deity to bear witness to the truth of what one says
In most societies ghosts resemble
a. close friends and relatives
b. totems
c. animals
d. Casper
a. close friends and relatives