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81 Cards in this Set

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Appendicular Skeleton
Bones NOT NOT NOT along the midline of the body- arms & legs
Cortical Bone
Compact tissue that forms the outside of the bone
Occipital Bun
Bony area at the back of cranium that forms a round, bunlike shape
Occipital Torus
Bony area at the back of cranium that forms a protruding point
Lamellar Bone
Spongy/honeycomb tissue that comprises the interior of bone

SAME AS TRABECULAR BONE
Bioarchaeology
Study of people through examining their bones
Sex Determination Techniques
based on SIZE- robusticity, length, ruggedness

SHAPE- functionally determined shapes (ex. pelvis)

Typically uses pelvis or cranium
Age Determination Techniques
Extent of Ossification:
-Epiphyseal Fusion= End of long bones where they fuse with the socket
-Structure Closure= when cranial bones fuse with age
-Tooth Eruption= look at teeth
-Rates of bone erosion-> Suchey Brooks Method
-Ridges dec. rimming inc. bony modules inc.
-Face becomes more concave
-Tooth wear
Antemortem
Anything that happens before death
Periodontal Disease
Indicated by bone infection and loss
Indicators of Tuberculosis
-HOLES IN BONE
-COLLAPSED VERTEBRAE
-FUSED VERTEBRAE
Indicators of Knife Wounds
Large cuts, nicks in bone
Indicators of Blunt Force Trauma
Depressions of bone with radiating fractures
Indicator of Choking
Broken HYOID HYOID HYOID bone
Postmortem
Things that occur after death
Perimortem
Anything that potentially contributed to death
Fractures
Indicated by evidence of bone healing

-Two parts of the same bone that do not line up correctly
-EXTRA bone in fracture-prone areas
Stellate Scars
Areas of bone that have a cottage cheese like appearance

INDICATE TREPONEMAL diseases
Porotic Hyperostosis
Bone lesions on top of cranium and in eye orbits

indicates ION-DEFICIENCY ANEMIA
Periostitis
Bone inflammation in EXTERNAL areas of bone

indicates INFECTION
Osteitis
Bone inflammation in INTERNAL areas of bone

indicates INFECTION
Osteophytes
EXTRA bony areas (spicules of bone)

indicate OSTEOARTHRITIS
Eburnation
Area of polished bone

indicates OSTEOARTHRIITIS
Dental Enamel Hypoplasias
Changes in the way enamel is laid down in teeth that shows up as pits, furrows, or grooves

indicates DIETARY STRESS
K-Selection Theory
aka Child Rearing Theory

Natural Selection FAVORS MENOPAUSE- live 12-15 years past reproductivity to take care of offspring
Heterochrony Theory
Result of EXTENDED LIVESPAN, reproductivity has not caught up

opposite of K-selection
Grandmother Hypothesis
So women can take care of offspring's offspring and last born offspring
Mother Hypothesis
Live long enough to take care of last offspring
Lactose Tolerance
Ability to produce lactase enzyme

PASTORAL CULTURES are lactose tolerant
Short/Long term adaptations to high altitude
INCREASED INCREASED INCREASED:
RESPIRATION
LUNG capacity
RED BLOOD CELL production
HEART size

PERMANENT PERM PERM EFFECTS:
DECREASED BLOOD PRESSURE
INCREASED CHEST SIZE
Vitamin D
-Helps bones absorb calcium and mineralize, Sun is primary source

-WHITER people absorb MORE sun--> MORE VITAMIN D
Skin Pigmentation
-Hemoglobin= Pinkish Color
-Carotene= Yellowish Color
-Melanin= Brownish Color

UV radiation DEPLETES VITAMIN B
DEPLETES VITAMIN B

Black people are black to prevent depletion-more melanin
Sickle Cell Anemia
Mendelian recessive trait

-Blood cells are DESTROYED, NOT enough O2 to organs in body

-Selectively FAVORED where MALARIA is prevalent
Sahelanthropus tchadensis
7 mya in CHAD at Toros Menalla

-REDUCED PROGNATHISM in face
-SMALL CANINES, PREMOLARS & MOLARS
-Homonin like tooth wear
-U SHAPED DENTAL arcade Mosaic environment
-BIG BROW RIDGES

unsure of location of foramen magnum
Australopithecus Africanus
"TAUNG CHILD"
3.3-1.0 mya South Africa

-LARGER face and brain that AFARENSIS
-LARGE MOLARS, SMALL FRONT teeth
-Habitual BIPED
-Some climbing adaptations still present

PRONOUNCED SEXUAL DIMORPHISM
Aegyptopithecus
Oligocene Epoch (34-23 mya)
Among FAYUM fossil finds

-CATARRHINE-like traits
fused mandible, fully enclosed bony orbits, small orbits, facial prognatism,

HAVE TAILS
Orrorin tugenensis
6mya in Kenya at Tugen Hills

-Larger bodied
-Small canines, premolars, molars
-Large JAW
-Angled femur, cortical bone thick on femur nuck
-Bipedal muscle attachment to groove in femur neck
-slightly curved phalange- possible arboreal movement

FORESTED environment
Australopithecus Afarensis
Lucy was one
3.9-3.0 mya in East Africa

-large face, small brains (both smaller than africanus)
-Large, thick jaw with LARGE PREMOLARS

Habitual Biped:
-broad short BOWL SHAPED PELVIS
-Robust, ANGLED IN KNEES
-footprints, straight fingers, still some climbing

SEXUAL DIMORPHISM PRESENT
Paranthropus Robustus
2.0-1.0 mya South Africa

ROBUST CRANIUM AND DENTAL STUFF
-Orthognathic, broad face HUGE FACE!
-LARGE!! LARGE Z-ARCHES, BROW RIDGES, BRAIN
-Sagittal crest
-THICK THICK DENTAL ENAMEL- folivorous
-SIMILAR POSTCRANIA TO AUSTRALOPITHECUS

Lived in FOREST AND GRASSLANDS
PRONOUNCED SEXUAL DIMORPHISM
Paranthropus Boisei
2.4-1.2 mya East Africa

-LARGE! LARGE broad, orthognathic face, Z-ARCHES, BROW RIDGES
-Sagittal Crest
-MASSIVE HUGE GINORMOUS JAW
-Thick dental enamel, large premolars & molars - FOLIVOROUS
Lives in Forest, lake areas

OBLIGATE BIPED! OBLIGATE BIPED! with possible ancestral climbing adaptations

PRONOUNCED SEXUAL DIMORPHISM
Ardipithecus Ramidus
4.4mya in Ethiopia (East Africa)
Found at ARAM's site

OBLIGATE BIPED! OBL. BIP!

-THIN THIN THIN DENTAL ENAMEL
-Flat base of cranium
-large jaw
-ANTERIOR ANTERIOR FORAMEN MAGNUM
-Arms NOT NOT NOT NOT used for locomotion

Forested environment
Homo habilis
2.4-1.8mya East Africa

-SMALL TINY MINISCULE orthognathic face, z-arches, brow ridges
-LARGER HUGE BRAIN than AUSTRALOPITHECUS & PARANTHROPUS
-smaller postcanine and canines, LARGER INCISORS
-OMNIVOROUS
-OBLIGATE BIPEDS
-Some sexual dimorphism

OLDOWAN STONE TOOLS! OLDOWAN OLDOWAN OLDOWAN!
Homo ergaster
"Nariokotomo Boy"
2.5-1.8mya Africa

-Larger body mass
-SHORTER ARMS, LONGER LEGS
-BARREL BARREL BARREL shaped RIBCAGE
-short broad BOWL SHAPED PELVIS
-Orthognathic face
-Large brow ridges and cranial capacity
-HUMAN LIKE TEETH AND PROPORTIONS
-OBLIGATE BIPEDS
-REDUCED LESS SMALLER SEXUAL DIMORPHISM
-complex habitation

OLDOWAN & ACHEULIAN TOOLS!! OLDOWAN AND ACHEULIAN (pg86)
Homo erectus
1.8mya-25,000ya Africa, Asia, E. Europe (86)

-Same postcranial traits as ERGASTER, LARGER BROW RIDGES
-OCCIPITAL TORUS TORUS TORUS
-SAGITTAL KEEL KEEL KEEL
-OBLIGATE BIPED
-LESS CRANIAL CAPACITY than ERGASTER, braincase sits lower

POSSIBLE FIRE!

ACHEULIAN ACHEULIAN ACHEULIAN TOOLS
Hono Neanderthalensis
250-25Kya Europe, Near East

Short, Robust limbs and joints
OBLIGATE BIPEDS
Large cranial capacity and brow ridges
-OCCIPITAL BUN BUN BUN BUN OCC BUN
-TURBINATE! bones in nose=cold weather
-MOUSTERIAN STONE TOOLS, FIRE MOUSTERIAN MOUSTERIAN TOOLS
-Omnivorous- hunters
Complex habitatio nsites and rituals
Homo sapiens
200K-10kya Everywhere but Antarctica

-similar to humans today
-VERTICAL FOREHEAD
-orthognathic face
-small teeth

UPPER PALEOLITHIC TOOLS! UPPER PALEOLITHIC!

rituals and fire
Axial Skeleton
Bones along the midline of the body

CRANIUM, VERTEBRAE, PELVIS
Mother Infant Bond
Baby does not let go of mother for 2 years
HULL Site
NE coast of England

Priory workers who helped rest of town and drank a lot

1340-1360s

Dated by DENDROCHRONOLOGY & CARBON DATING BONES
Syphilis
Holes in forehead area of the skull

Holes in palate between nose and mouth
Balanced Polymorphism
Situation where heterozyhous condition is the most fit

Ex. Malaria with the sickle-cell trait
Clinical Distribution
Distribution along a gradation
Stratigraphy
Based on the law of superposition-

A LOWER STRATUM (LAYER) IS OLDER THAN A HIGHER STRATUM
Radiocarbon Dating
Measures the amount of CARBON 14 left in bones
Taphonomy
Everything that happened to an organism from TIME IT DIED UNTIL TIME IT WAS DISCOVERED
Fluorine Analysis
Buried bones and groundwater seepage- bones incorporate fluorine during fossilization
Biostratigraphy
Shows the PROGRESSION OF CHANGE through time
--look at dentition of animals
Tubular Ectotympanic
OWM have it. OWM OWM OWM! OLD OLD OLD

way of classification
Bonobo Reproductive Behavior
-Strong bonds, minimal competition
-PROLONGED ESTRUS
-constant sexual behavior
-LOW LOW LOW INFANTICIDE

-believed to be because of less competition for food resources
Irregular Bones
Do not fit any other category, like some bones in the skull
Long Bones
Long and have a shaft with 2 ends on them.

When you are done growing, the ends FUSE ON TO BONE, which makes it stop growing
Short Bones
Cube shaped, like bones in wrist
Flat Bones
Hard outside layer, spongy layer, hard layer
Haplorine
DIURNAL

DRY NOSES!

TARSIERS AND ANTHROPOIDS (all monkeys)
Platyrrhine Traits
LONG BACKS, EQUALLY LONG LIMBS

ARBOREAL

SOCIAL

DIURNAL (mostly)

SMALLER ONES EAT GUMS AND INSECTS (CALLITRICHIDAE)

LARGER ONES EAT MORE FRUIT AND LEAVES

3 Premolars--- 2:1:3:3 DENTAL FORMULA!

ALL HAVE ECTOTYMPANIC RINGS
ALL HAVE TAILS
Strepsirhine
LEMURS AND LORISES
NOCTURNAL

DEPENDENT ON SMELL OVER VISION, NO COLOR VISION

SOLITARY, ARBOREAL, SMALL

MOIST NOSES

MOLARS with SHARP, POINTY CUSPS (FOR INSECTS)

VERTICAL CLINGERS AND LEAPERS

LONG LEGS AND BACKS FOR JUMPING
Strepsirhine traits
Lemurs only in Madagascar
Lorises only in Africa and Asia

UNFUSED MANDIBLE

LARGE ORBITS

AT LEAST 1 GROOMING CLAW! GROOM

ECTOTYMPANIC RING

SLOW QUADRUPEDALISM

GUMIVORY, INSECTIVORY, FRUIT, & LEAVES
NWM Dental Formula
2:1:3:3

EXCEPT FOR CALLITRICHIDAE 2:1:3:2
OWM Dental Formula
2:1:2:3
Oldowan Tools
Africa 2.5-1.4mya
Produced by: Austr. Garhi, H. Habilis, H. Ergaster

CHOPPERS AND FLAKES!

Production: DIRECT PERCUSSION (using hammer)

FLAKES NOT SPECIALIZED

NO STANDARDIZATION
Acheulian Tools
Africa, W. Europe, Asia 1.5mya-200kya
Produced by: H. Erectus, H. Ergaster

CHOPPERS, HAND AXES

SPECIALIZED FLAKES--SCRAPERS AND BURINS

Production: Direct percussion, specialized flakes
STANDARDIZED TOOL FORM
RELATIVELY COMPLICATED PRODUCTION PROCESS
Mousterian Tools
Europe and W. Asia 200-40kya
Produced by: H. Neanderthalensis, H.sapiens

FLAKES-- SCRAPERS, BURINS, BLADES, POINTS, KNIVES

BI-FACES (2 sided)

Production:
PREPARED CORE=LEVALLOIS TECHNIQUE
MORE MORE MORE specialization, standardization, specialized raw material, complicated technique

some bone tools, possible hafting
Levallois Technique
Associated with Mousterian stone tool technology

Involves the preparation of a core prior to removing flakes, thus, a specific core shape is produced to maximize the production of flakes from it
Upper Paleolithic Tools
Europe 40-10kya
Produced by: H. sapiens, possibly neanderthals (for production of Chatelperronian tools only)

FLAKES-- BURINS, BORERS, KNIVES, BLADES

BONE AND WOOD TOOLS-- SPEAR THROWER (ATLATL), BARBED HARPOONS, BOW AND ARROW, AWLS

Production: PUNCH BLADE TECHNIQUE used for making stone blades that can be modified into particular flakes

NON STONE RAW MATERIALS (bone, antlers, wood)

different tools for different activities

HAFTING OF TOOLS to handles of wood, bone, antler, etc.

SUPER COMPLICATED
Neanderthal Cold-weather stuff
Robust Limbs and Joints

TURBINATE NASAL BONES
Mastoid Process
Bony area of the cranium slightly below the back of the ear, sticks out from cranium

NECK MUSCLES ATTACH TO THEM
Quadrupedalism
Equal length arms and legs

Long narrow ILLIUM, with BLADE ORIENTED TO THE BACK

A-SHAPED RIBS

STRAIGHT VERTEBRAL COLUMN

INFLEXIBLE INFLEXIBLE INFLEXIBLE LUMBAR REGION!

POSTERIOR FORAMEN MAGNUM
SMALL MASTOID PROCESSES
Knuckle Walking
LONG ARMS relative to legs

slightly curved fingers
robust knuckles
Bipedalism
BIG TOE IN LINE with other toes
LONGITUDINAL ARCH

KNEES angle IN from Pelvis

Illium is short and broad
ILLIum oriented with BLADE ON SIDE--BOWL SHAPED PELVIS

BARREL SHAPED RIBCAGE

S-SHAPED VERTEBRAL COLUMN, OPEN AND FLEXIBLE LUMBAR REGION

ANTERIOR FORAMEN MAGNUM

LARGE MASTOID PROCESS TO SUPPORT CRANIUM
Brachiation
gibbons and siamangs +some NWM (Atelids)

short, round pelvis
FLEXIBLE LUMBAR region
A-SHAPED RIBS
LONG ARMS
LONG (slightly curved) FINGERS
flexible wrist joints

ANTERIOR FORAMEN MAGNUM
Fission-Fusion
Specialized multi-male, multi-female

LIVE TOGETHER when sharing ABUNDANT RESOURCES

LIVE APART when looking for SCARCE RESOURCES