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104 Cards in this Set

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Lamarch
recognised that populationj of organisms evolve and emphasized trais must be heritable
cuvier
recognised the connection between exsisting lifeforms and fossils
malthus
suggested the competition may be intense
pre darwinian ideas of hte 1800s
hints of evolutionary ideas that species were not fixed!
Darwins 5 theories
evolution as such
common descent
multiplication of species
gradualism
natl selection
Darwin's Theory of Evolution As Such
the world steadily changes
therefore
organizsms are transformed though time timetimes in ways that seem directional.

the world is neither constant or cycling

this idea was easily accepted
examples of evolution
fossils were abundant and showed how things changed
Darwin's Theory of Population Change Through Time
Through time, the amoutn of ppl walking hte earth changes
Darwin's Theory of Common Descent
aka branching

species are related in a special fashion.

this was also widely accepted
examples of common descent
apes adn humans have a common ancestor.
Common descent proved HOMOPLASY
CONVERGETN EVOLUTION AS A CATALYST TO THE SIMILARITY BETWEEN COMMONLY DESCENDED SPECIES THAT ARE SIMILAR.

ie. anteaters and other like animats and bat's wings, birds wing, and insect wings. all SIMILARLY DESCENDED
COMMON DESCENT ALSO SHOWS US HOMOLOGOUS FEATURES
homology = similarity because of descent from a common ancestor.

ie. arm bones in the human, bird lizard and frog
HOW THE COMMON DESCENT EXPLAINED THE LINNEAN HEIRARCHY
EACH LEVER OF THE HEIRARCHY CONTAINS DESCENDANTS OF A COMMON ANCESTOR.
EVOLUTION ALSO SHOWS UP IN FOSSIL RECORDS
LOOKING AT THESE FOSSILS WE CAN WE THE ORDER OF EVOLUTION BY WHICH SPECIES HAS WHAT TRAIT AND WHERE THE TRAIT IS LOST
THIS DESCENDING PATTERN IS ALSO ABLE TO SEE IN DOGS
WE CAN SEE HOW THEY EVOLVED FROM ONE COMMON ANCESTOR
Darwin's Theory of Multiplication of Species
This theory explains the origin of the enormous organic diversity. It postulates that species multiply, either by splitting into daughter species or by "budding", that is, by the establishment of geographically isloated founder populations that evolve into new species.
adaptaive Radiation -
ie finches
These finches, better known as 'Darwin's Finches' illustrated adaptive radiation. This is where species all deriving from a common ancestor have over time successfully adapted to their environment via natural selection.
Darwins theory of Gradualism
Gradualism. According to this theory, evolutionary change takes place through the gradual change of populations and not by the sudden (saltational) production of new individuals that represent a new type.
Natural Selection

(4 parts)
1- struggle 4 exsistance; intense compet.
2- indiv. within a popul. vary
3- this variation can be inherited...passed thru generations
4- due to the variation olf traits some indiv are better suited to survive and reproduce then others. and thereforre are naturally selected.
Mathus said about populations:
more are born then can survive
Fitness
the relative ability of an organizsm to survive and transmit its genes to the gene pool and hte next generation

differences in fitness will result in a comptibility bw an organism and its environment thru time
Adaption
useful features shaped by natural selection promoting survival and repro.

an extension of adaption is that the environment changes the species must adapt or be extinct!
adaption is a trait with a function
examples are:
change or be changed!
begging 4 food, camofloge for safety. change or be changed!
natural Selection Theory
natural selection favors traits that maximize reproduction success
The Grants and their fieldwork iwth Finches
they watched the birds and observed how their diet correlated with their beak size.
they eat mostly plant parts and liek softer wetter food. (fruit, necter seeds)
variation is heritable in finches ie
parents with larger beaks had offspering with larger beaks.

during drought only large beaks survived and thenre was a shift in average phenotype from parental ot offspreing generation

becuase the phenotypic feature is heritable, there was a distribution of genotypes.

natural selectionL
beak size was naturally selected to increase
food size constitutes the selective pressure.
stabilizing selection
the average stays in the middle adn stabilizes the population
directional slection
selection to one extreme
stabilizing selection
seckection for the average.
natural selection ideas:
species are not fixed

natl selec acts on indiv. and leads to adaptions at the level of the indiv.

natl selec requires variation

natl selection is responsible for both stability and change

natural selection involved chance and determinism - generation of a new variation in each generatio nis change .. selection has a chace but mainly determiinistic.
darwins theories werent accepted beacuse
`ppl wanted genetics
they couldnt explain extravegant traits
sexual selection theory
evolutioary change that occurs because of variation in the ability to aquire mates
you can aquire mates in 2 ways -

intra adn inter sexual selection
intra- male male selec leads to a lot of competition

inter - attracting mates to you ie swelling
population
within a species it is a community to where mates are usuall found
transmission genetics
concerns expected ratios of offspring genotypes given the genotypes of the parents.
Evolution
invoves genetic changes in populations

genetic changes addect phenotypeic traits

evolution is hte change in gene freq over time
what are the factors that dont effect gene freq.?
ordinary events in life cycles dont effect it and mendelian segregation and sexual repro dont lead to segregation
Hardy Weinberg law
in populations of interbreeding individuals gene freq remin constant over generations.
Hardy Weinberg Equation
p^2 + 2pq + q^2 =1
teh stability of gene freq.
the from hw law equation, we can show that gene freq remain constant under the assumptions of segregation sexual recombination and random mating.
Factors Causing Evolutioary Change
1- natural selection
2- mutation
migration
genetic drift
non random mating
Message of Hardy Weinberg
Sex is not enough!!!!
Mutations
create new variation

reflect changes in the base pain of the DNA

chromosomal deletions, insertions and duplications
migration - ggene flow
the movemtn of genes between populations
migration is depended on
dispersal of individuals
ability of conspecifics to mate
Genetic drift
rnadom changes in gene freq in finite populations

drift casues larger variations in smaller populations then in larger ones.
What drift causes:
isolated populations to become genetically different from one another

unpredictable changes in gene freq including fixation
assortative mating -
indivivuals preferentially mate iwth others that exhibit certain traits.

ie bicultural marriages and how theyh are looked down upon.

this leads to genetic variability
founder effect.
new genetic variation rarely enters the population

this is a sampling error
Natural Selection for Male Guarding
evolves like any other traits

the natural selection requires
1- variation
2- heritability
3- differencial repro success
3NS 4NS
3 necessary and Sufficient conditions for natural selection to occur

1. variability in a trend
2. heritability of the variation
3. differential reproductive success
Blending Inheritance
creates an average

would reduce variation
genes
material particles of inheritance
alleles
variation of genes
homnozygous
individuals have 2 similar alleles
hetertozygous
individuals carry 2 different alleeles
refutation of belnding inheritance
parental phenotypes can be recovered in subsequent generations
law of segregation
each gene is equally likely to be transmitted to sex cells.
diploid
chromosomes occur in homologous pairs!

all primates are doploid adn have diff number of chromo.

human have 23
mitosis
daughter cells possess exact copies of paretns cells chromosomes
meiosis
daughter cells contin half the choromomes in parents.. aka! GAMETES.

SPLIT CHROMOSOMES
LAW OF SEGREGATION AND GENETICS!
each allele is equally likely to be transmitted to gametes

1. onyl one homolog. chromo is inherited from each parents
2. each chromosome is likely to appeak in offspring
genotype -
genetic composition of an individual or the genetic composition (dna) at teh specific locus
phenotypes
the observable characteristics of an individual. individuals with the same phenotype may have different genotypes.
mendels law of indep. assortment
particles that control traits assort independantly
mendels law of indep. assortment
particles or genes that control different traits assort indep.

sexual repro shuffles genes that affect different traits and thereby produes new combonation of traints anakaaaa recomintatoin help to keep variation
crossover
creaes new combo of genes and new variations!!
locus
gene site that has multiple alleles.
4 types of DNA
A
D
T
C
Adenine
thymine
cytocine
guanine

A-->D
C__> G
2 importiant traits of DNA
stability - preserves the genetic message

replicability - ensures inheritance.
dna codes for protiens
aka exons is freq interrupted by noncoding dna called introns. these introns ahve no phenotype effect and are therefore not subject to natural slection
Molecular genetics
chromosomes have dna
genes are short segments of dna
dna is translated into progtiens shose structre is determied by dna
variation in genes are responsible for phenotypics defferences
WHAT CAUSES evolutionary change?
natural selection
mutation
migration
genetic drift
non random mating
macroevolutionary processes
account for the evolution of new speciesand higher taxa
biological species concept
species are a group of potencially or actually inbreeding organisms that are reproductively isolated from one another

tyhis emphasises reproductive isolation

and gene flow/ migration adn the movemnt of genetic material between populations
ecological species concept
species is a group of organisms created and maintained through the process of natural selection

says that gene flow is neither necessary or sufficent to create nad maintain species boundaries. instead natural selection shapes and creates species.
allopatric speciation
geographic isolation taht creaes new divergent species
niche
is the totaly range of conditions underr which the individual or population lives and replaces itself. a particlar way of making a living.
sympatric speciation
strong selection that favors different phenotypes leads to speciation in teh absence of geog isolation.
adaptive radiation

and the 3 ways it can happen
the process whereby a songle species diversifies to fill several open niches

1. extinction of competetors
2. colonization of area where there is no competion
ie lemur
3. adaptive breakthrogh -
cladogram
branchy system what shows relationship but no time!
phylogeny
ancestor adn descendant relationships and show relation and time!
for kpcofgs we use _____ to classify animats
we use traits opr features that each species possess. shows the most common ancestor.
analogies
are superficial similarities of features based on common function not common ancestry
homoplasy
term for teh separate evolutionary development of analogies in different species.
homologies traits in various species
same basic structure
same relationship
same development

in different species
symplesiomorphy
with respect to the new exclusive set of species ancestral homology
synapomorphy
in order to get an even more exclusive srt of species we need to find another derived homology.
causes of human variation
genetic: differences caused by inherited genes governed by mutation, drift, and sleection

environmental - differences casued by the environment climate, habitat, competing species and culture.

for example body weight

sickle cell anemia - geneticlly passed. caused by locus for hemglobin
Hemoglobin and sickle cell anemia facts
located in africa

AA no sickling more suscep. to malaria
AS resists malaria moderate anemia
SS none sickle cell anemia
heritability
the proportion of phenopypics cariation due to the effects of genes.
the comparitive method to understand adaption
seeks to correlate patterns of evolution of morphologym life history, behavior, adn ecology
homology
closely related species will often have similaries in morphology, psysiology, life history, and behavior.
Primate Charactoristic -
orbits encircled by bone.
nails instead of claws
grasping hand with thumb
reliance on vision
less reliance on olfaction
relatively large brains
long juvenile period
single births
very primitive primates
basic strepsirhine features

no wall behind orbit
grooming clay
tooth comb
lemurs
daubentoniids
tarsiars
prosimians
traits of anthropoids
post orbital closure
larger brain
nails not claws
large body size
complex social systems with extended paretnal care.
New World Monkeys (platyrrhines)
live in so. america.
broadflat noses
verty diverse

2 families:
atelidae - spider monkey is example
cebidae ( 3 types) - cebidae monkey or owl monkey
Old world monkeys can live in various climates
so america, africa, india etc.
old world monkeys
catarrhini - apes and humans too

they are larger
large nostrile facing down
2123 dental formula
New World Monkeys
platyrrhini - old world monkeys

smaller
not open nostrils
2133 dental
the hominoids
great apes- orangatangs, gorilla, chimp, human

long arms
short lumbar rehion
broad pelvis
high limb mobility
no tail
large brain adn body
eat fruit
extended juvelile period
modern apes are found in
middle of africa and indonesia
and can be very diverse
chimpanzees
very diverse habiltat
they eat meat
use tools
are territorial
kill,
have big brain
adn bonobos like sex