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24 Cards in this Set

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Evolution
The change in the properties of populations of organisms that occur over time.
Natural Selection
The mechanism of evolutionary change; changes in traits of living organisms that occur over time as a result of differences in reproductive success among individuals.
Mutation
A random change in genetic material; the ultimate source of all biological variation.
Genetic Drift
Changes in the frequencies of specific traits caused by random factors.
Arboreal
Tree-dwelling
Termite fishing
The learned use of twigs or blades of grass to extact termites from their mounds characteristic of some groups of chimpanzees.
Genus
In biological classification, a group of similar species.
Species
In biological classifcation, a group of organisms whose members are similar to one another and are able to reproduce with one another but not with members of other species.
Bipedalism
Walking on two feet, a distinctive characteristic of humans and our ancestors.
Australopithecines
Members of an early hominid genus found in Africa and characterized by bipedal locomotion and small brain size.
Omnivore
An animal that eats both plant and animal foods.
Homo habilis
A species of early human found in Africa. Homo habilis were present between 2.5 and 1.8 million years ago.
Oldowan Tools
Stone tools made by Homo habilis
Homo erectus
A species of early human found in Africa, Asia, and Europe. Homo erectus were present between 1.8 million and about 20,000 years ago.
Homo sapiens
A species of human found throughout the world. The earliest Homo sapiens appeared about 500,000 years ago.
Neandertal
Members of a population of archaic Homo sapiens that lived between 130,000 and 35,000 years ago.
Multiregional model
A theory that seeks to explain the transition from Homo erectus to Homo sapiens by arguing that different populations of Homo sapiens are descendant from different populations of Homo erectus.
Replacement model
The theory that modern people evolved first in Africa and then spread out to inhabit virtually all the world, outcompeting or destroying other human populations in the process.
Hybridization model
A theory that seeks to explain the transition from archaic to modern Homo sapiens by proposing that modern and archaic forms interbred.
atlatl
A spear thrower, a device used to increase and extend the power of the human arm when throwing a spear.
"Venus" figurines
Small stylized statues of females made in a variety of materials by early modern humans.
Clinal distribution
The frequency change of a particular trait as you move geographically from one point to another.
Melnain
A pigment found in the skin, hair, and eyes of huamn beings, as well as many other species, that is responsible for variations in color.
Rickets
A childhood disease characterized by the softening and bendings of leg and pelvis bones. Rickets is related to insufficiency of vitamin D and/or calcium.