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51 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
said breasts are part of culture and so is mother
boys react more to this type of cue
girls react more to this type of cue
made a large, comprehensive list of aspects of culture that should be found everywhere
murdock's list of universal aspects of culture
division of labor
gift giving
incest taboos
kin terminology
meal times
personal names
dream interpretation
2 kinds of dream interpretation
literal - go shoot deer, eat meat
figurative - fly to top of tree, dive into lake
foragers - close to equator - ?
longer growing season, women provide a higher percentage of food because much diversity in plants, and an abundance of them too
foraging worldwide patterns
-sexual division of labor - men hunt, women gather
-relative contribution of men vs women - men moreso farther from equator
-foragers map onto their resources (follow resources)
foragers when all together
maximal band
foragers when in extended family
minimal band
foragers when in 2 or 3 extended families
medial band
live in high areas. assembled in max band on floor of valley, lived on stored food. spring - harvest early blooming plants, moved into mountain slopes, breaking into smaller groups, hunted deer. stayed in minimal bands all summer, in fall - aggregate briefly into maximal bands, hunted rabbits, dispersed again into medial bands, went to rows of pines that had nuts, lived there for winter on nuts/rabbits
slash and burn
live in salt, breed in fresh water
cultivated plants have bigger food parts called
main producers in horticultural societies?
foraging ended when?
10,000 years ago
plots are planted for two or three years, allowed to rest for three to five, and then recultivated. after several cycles, there is a longer fallow period. This is known as
sectorial fallowing
key difference between horticulture and agriculture
hort uses a fallow period while ag does not
people whose activities focus on such domesticated animals as cattle, sheep, goats, cames and yak
how do pastoralists get crops
trade with cultivators or so some cultivating/gathering themselves
the two patterns of movement that occur with pastoralism
nomadism and transhumance
type of pastoralism: the entire group - men women and children - move with the animals throughout the year
pastoral nomadism
type of pastoralism: part of the group moves with the herds, but most people stay in the home village
system of production, distribution, and consumption of resources
study of systems of production, distribution, and consumption of resources
set of scoial relations through which labor is deploed to wrest energy from nature by means of tools, skills, organization, and knowledge
mode of production
the three means of production
land, labor, technology
describes an unequal distribution of rewards (power, prestige, human rights, personal freedom) between men and women, relecting their different positions in a social heirarchy
gender stratification
residence after the wedding with the wife's family
residence after the wedding with the husband's family
matrilineal-matrilocal systems tend to occur when?
in societies where population pressure on strategic resources is minimal and warfare is infrequent
name for senor women
mother-centered, often with no resident husband-father
family in which one is born and grows up
family of orientation
formed when one marries and has children
family of procreation
term for when married couples are expected to establish a new place of residence
kin units formed when parents remarry and bring children into a new household
blended families
permanent social unit whose members say they have ancestors in common
descent group
people join the mother's group automatically at birth and stay members throughout life
matrilineal descent
people automtically join the father's group for lifetime
patrilineal descent
patrilineal descent and matrilineal descent are both examples of
unilineal descent
this type of group has an apical ancestor that is not a human but an animal or plant
two types of descent groups
lineages and clans
this descent group uses demonstrated descent, members can recite names of forebears
use stipulated descent; clan members say they descend from apical ancestor and can't trace actual lineage
stipulated descent
when people can change their descent group, pick which one they want, and be a member of more than one descent group
ambilineal descent
tends to have higher divorce rates and greater female promiscuity (patrilineal or matrilineal)
iroquois, tell me about them..
matrilineal, marry your cross cousins!
Crow.. what are they?
matrilineal, mother's side down one
patrilineal, father's side down one