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87 Cards in this Set

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Hominid
Colloquial term for members of the family Hominidae, which includes all bipedal hominoids back to the divergance from African great apes.
Mosaic Evolution
A pattern of evolution in which the rates of evolution in one funcuntional system vary from those in other systems. For example, in hominid evolution, the dental system, locomotor system, and neurological system (especiially the brain) all evolved at markedly different rates.
Protohominids
The earliest members of the hominid lineage, as yet only poorly represented in the fossil record; thus, their structure and behavior are reconstructed largely hypothetically.
Objects or materials made or modified for use by hominids. The earliest artifacts are usually made of stone or, occasioanlly bone.
Artifacts
Taphonomy
(from Greek taphos, meaning "dead") The study of how bones and other materials came to be buried in the earth and preserved as fossils. A taphonomist studies the processes of sedimentation, the action of streams, preservation properties of bone, and carnivore distrubance factors.
Context
The environmental setting where an archaeological trace is found. Primary context is the setting in which the archaeological trace was originally deposited. A secondary context is one to which it has been moved. (e.g. by the action of the stream.
Where is Olduvai Gorge located?
On the Serengeti Plain of Northern Tanzania.
A unit of archaeological time that begins >2.5 mya with the earliest identified tools made by hominids and ends around 200,000 B.C.
Lower Paleolithic
A major figure in the twentieth-century paleoanthropology, devoted most of her life to fieldwork in Olduvai Gorge, where she made many important discoveries, including the Zinjanthropus Skull in 1959.
Mary Leaky
A stone tool kit which includes many small flakes tools and is named after Olduvai.
Oldowan
Unmodified rocks of types that are not present in the geology of the immediate vicinity of the Oldowan sites where they are found.
Manuports
Hominids that hunt, scavenge, or collect food and raw materials from the general locality where they habitually live and bring these materials back to some central or home-base site to be shared with other members of their co-residing group.
Home-Based Foragers
In what order is the primate evolutionary scale?
The Paleocene, The Eocene, The Oligocene, the Miocene
In what time period where the first definite anthopoids (monkeys, apes, and humans)revealed?
The Oligocene (34-23mya)
Which time period reveals the first unqestioned primates of the prosimian "grade" of anatomy?
The Eocene (55-34mya)
Apidium and Aegytopithecus are genus of what Primate classification?
The anthropoids.
Which time period if referred to as "the golden age of hominoids?"
The Miocene
Why is the Miocene SO important?
Because the first definite hominoids are represented in the fossil record. This is where the divergance of ape and hominid lineages likely occured. (late Miocene)
In what countries were the African Hominoids (21-14 mya)found?
Kenya and Uganda
In what countries were the European Hominoids (16-11 mya)found?
France, Spain, and Greece.
In what countries were the Asia Hominoids (16-7 mya)found?
Turkey, India, Pakistan, and China.
What do dental differences seen in varying hominoid classfications indicate?
It represents adaptations to different diets.
Between the taxa "Proconsulines" and "Sivapithecines" which has small molars, thin enamel, and a gracile (non-robust) mandible?
Proconsulines
Which taxa has large molars, thick enamel, and a robust mandible?
Sivapithecines
What did the proconsuline diet probably consist of?
Soft fruits.
What did the Sivapithecine diet probably consist of?
Foods of tough consistency.
The earliest hominoid; is considered a hominoid because of the Y-5 Cusp Pattern.
Proconsul
Why is Sivopithecus considered to be ancestral to pongo?
Because of the facial anatomy of the fossil GSP 1500.
Proconsul and other Miocene hominoids have monkey like?
Post-Craniums
What is a Post-Cranial Anatomy?
In a quadruped, referring to that portion of the body behind the head; in a biped, referring to all parts of the body beneath the head (i.e. the neck down)
The earliest monkeys are dated to about 15 million years ago. True or False?
True!
If Sivopithecus is ancestral to Pongo, then the common anatomies between Pongo and Pan/Gorilla must be due to similar, but independent, adaptations and not due to common ancestry. True or False?
True!
What is the geological distribution of Giantopithecus? (The Giant Ape)?
Asia(Pakistan,India,China,and Vietman)
Are apes likey arboreally or terrestrially adapted?
Terrestrially
What taxa does the following dental anatomy belong to? Small incisors, short but robust canines, and extremely large molars with thick enamel.
The Giant Ape
All East Hominoid Sites are found in East Africa along the Great Rift Valley and North Central Africa. True or False
Of course true!
List the open air sites of East Africa.
Hadar, Ethiopia, Olduvai Gorge, Tanzania
Where is the cave site Sterkfontein located?
South Africa
What are the four general points we know for certain about Miocene hominoid fossils?
1) They are widespread geographically.

2) They are numerous.

3) They span a considerable portion of the Miocene, with know remains dated btw 23 and 6 mya.

4) They are currently not well understood.
Large-Bodied Hominoids
Those hominoids including the great apes) orangutans, chimpanzees, gorillas), and hominids, as well as all ancestral forms back to the time of divergance from small-bodied hominoids.
What did bipedal locomotion free the hands for?
For carrying objects and for making and using and tools.
Animals had a wider view of the sorrounding countryside, and in open terrain, early spotting of predators (particulary the large cats, such as lions, leopards, and saber-tooths) due to what beneficial adaptation?
Bipedal Locomotion (a fundamental feature of the early hominids)
Bipedal walking is an efficient means of covering long distances. True or False?
True!
Bipedalism as the only form of hominid terrestial locomotion. Since major anatomical changes in the spine, pelvis, and lower limb are required for bipedal locomotion, once hominids adapted it, other forms of locomotion on the ground became impossible.
Obligate Bipedalism
Habitual Bipedalism
Bipedal locomotion as the form of locomotion shown by hominids most of the time.
Designated the "earliest hominid", Sahelanthropus, was found where and is dated back how far in time?
Found in Central Africa at the site Toros-Menalla in Northern Chad. Dated to 7 mya!
Once again, what is the best supporting evidence of hominid status?
Bipedalism
An early hominid genus, known from the Pilo-Pleistocene of Africa, characterized by bipedal locomotion, a relatively small brain, and large back teeth. Also the longest-enduring hominid yet to be documented!
Australopithecus
Australopithecus are relatively small-brained, big-toothed bipeds. True or False?
True!
Slightly later and much more complete remains of Australopithecus have been located at what two sites?
The sites of Hadar (on Ethiopia) and Laetoli (in Tanzania)
Where were the famous Lucy skeleton and Laetoli footprints discovered?
Hadar, Ethiopia
Is it true the A.Afarensis was a short hominid?
Yes.
What African Site produces the most information about the behavior of early hominids?
Lake Turkana on the East Side of Olduvai Gorge.
Why is Homo Habilis so important?
Because it shows increased cranial size of about 20 percent over the larger of the australopithecines and an even greater increase over some of the smaller brained forms.( 520 cm to 631 cm)
Leaky argued that members of what group where the early Olduvai tool makers?
Homo Habilis
Where were the Neandertals found?
Europe
The Taung Child discvoered in 1929 was correlated with the Bonobo when talking of body size. True or False?
True
What was the Taung Child classified as?
Australopithecus Africanus (Southern Ape of Africa)
What does the pelvis of an animal suggest?
Bipedalism
Do the robust australipithecines have smaller cranial capacities?
Yes.
Where is the "Gracile" Australopithecus most commonly found?
Sterkfontein (South Africa)
A "family tree" of fossil evolution.
Phylogeny
What type of relationship is there between the sizes of incisors and canines?
Inverse relationship.
What taxa has the largest molars?
Au.Boisei
What does the "Robust" Australopithecine comprise of?
Au.Robustus, Au.Boisei, Au.Aethiopicus
Ealiest homo has dental size similar to what two taxas?
Au.Afarensis and Au.Africanus
Do earliest homos have a saggital crest?
No.
Earliest hominids have a cranial capacity not much different than what taxa?
Pan (The Chimpanzees)
Sexual Dimorphism is consistnely connected to a monagomous or polygnous social structure?
Polygnous Social Structure
Earluest definitive evidence of bipedality in early hominids is 4.2-3.9 mya. True or False?
True
The Oldwan tools are dated how long ago?
2.6 mya from East Africa
The important fossil specimen KNM-ER 1470 with a cranial capacity of 750 cm3 is associated with what taxa?
Why Homo of course!
Dental size in early Homo is similar to what taxa?
Gracile Australopithecines but smaller than that of contemperaneous robust Australopithecines.
Do Homos have a fully modern looking foot and thigh bones? And what is the signifigance of this?
This means full adaptation to bipedality!
Is there variation in size and anatomy in early Homo?
Yes!
What were some characteristics of Homo lifestyle?
1) division of labor
2) sharing of food
3) home camp served as a protective refuge.
What is it called when early Homo stored stone tools at strategic locations across landscapes, such as near likely predator kill sites?
Oldowan Tool Caches
What is the first hominid that likley orginated in Africa, and is the first hominid to migrate from Africa?
Homo Erectus
An increase in cranial capacity could be associated with a new stone tool industry called what?
Acheulian Tools found in Africa and are dated to 1.4 mya.
There was a decrease in molar size, but no change in incisor size, in H.Erectus wheb compared to early Homo (i.e. H.Habilis True or False?
True.
When might fire have first been used and where?
500,000 ya at Zhoukudian, China.
How does H.Erectus's skull differ from H.Sapiens (modern humans)?
It is low, long, and broadest at its base.
H.Erectus showed what two dominant features?
Supraorbital torus (thick browridge) and no chin!
H. erectus had thinker cranial and postcranial bones, when compared to early Homo and Modern Humans. True or False?
True. Suspected that H.Erectus did more rigoruous physical activity which would explain thicker bones when compared to early Homo and Modern Humans.
1) Successful hunterns and gatherers.
2) Used Acheulian tools.
3) Probable use of fire.
No evidence of burial
H.erectus characteristics
The Mousterian Tool Industry is associated with what taxa?
The Neandertals
Who were the first memebers of Homo to bury their dead deliberately?
The Neandertals