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72 Cards in this Set

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name the five cell types in the Anterior pituitary
Somatotrophs
Lactotrophs (mammotrophs)
Corticotrophs
Thyrotrophs
Gonadotrophs
Somatorophs produce ______ hormone
growth hormone (GH
Somatotrophs are acidophilic cells constitute ______ of all the hormone producing cells in the anterior pituitary
half
Lactotrophs (mammotrophs)

produce _______.
prolactin
Lactotrophs are acidophilic cells secrete prolactin, which is essential for ______.
lactation
Corticotrophs are ____philic cells
basophillic
Corticotrophs produce:
adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), pro-opiomelanocortin, melanocyte stimulating hormone (MSH), endorphins, and lipotropin...
Thyrotrophs are pale _____philic cells
baso
Tryrotrophs produce
thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH)...
Gonadotrophs are ______philic cells
basophillic
Gonadotrophs produce
both follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH)...
FSH stimulates
the formation of graafian follicle in the ovary
LH induces:
ovulation and the formation of corpora lutea in the ovary...
Posterior Pituitary aka
neurohypophysis,
Posterior pituitary consists of
modified glial cells (termed pituicytes) and axonal processes extending from nerve cell bodies
oxytocin and vasopressin, are stored:
through the pituitary stalk to the posterior lobe
Posterior pituitary is derived embryologically from an
outpouching of the floor of the third ventricle, which grows downward alongside the anterior lobe...the neuroectoderm...
herring bodies are formed from:
from neuroectoderm as an extension of the developing diencephalon...
the pituitary has ______ circulation
dual
Prolactinomas
most frequent type of hyperfunctioning pituitary adenoma
30%
increased serum levels of prolactin, or prolacintemia cause:
amenorrhea, galactorrhea, loss of libido, and infertility.
the diagnosis of an adenoma is made more readily in women or men?
women, 20 to 40
this tumor underlies almost a ______ of cases of amenorrhea...
quarter
macroadenoma
= prolactin levels greater than 350...
microadenoma
= prolactin levels between 200 and 300...
br______ suppresses prolactin secretion
bromocriptine
dopamine ______ prolactin
inhibits
physiologic hyperprolactinemia occurs in p______
pregnancy
serum prolactin levels increase throughout pregnancy, reaching a peak at ______.
delivery
prolactin levels are also elevated by ______ stimulation
nipple
prolactin levels are also elevated
as a response to many types of stress...
pathologic hyperprolactinemia can also result from ______ hyperplasia
lactotroph
interference with normal dopamine inhibition of prolactin secretion.
pathologic hyperprolactinemia
stalk effect
any mass in the suprasellar comparment may disturb the normal inhibitory influence of the hypothalamus on prolactin secretion, resulting in hyperprolactinemia
dopamine receptor antagonists
can cause
hyperprolactinemia
...prolactinomas are treated with ______, a dopamine receptor agonist, which causes the lesions to diminish in size...
bromocriptine
Growth Hormone Adenomas of the Pituitary
GH secreting tumors:
second most common type of functioning pituitary adenoma...
growth hormone synthesis is predominately regulated by hypothalamic
GHRH (growth hormone releasing hormone),
growth hormone synthesis pulsatile secretion is predominantly regulated by hypothalamic s______.
somatostatin
persistent hypersecretion of GH stimulates:
the hepatic secretion of insulin like growth factor I (IGF-I), which causes many of the clinical manifestations.
if the somatotrophic adenoma appears in children before the epiphyses have closed, the elevated levels of GH result in g______.
gigantism
if the increased levels of GH are present after closure of the epiphyses, patients dvevelop ______.
acromegaly
Corticotroph Cell Adenomas at diagnosis
usually small microadenomas at the time of
Corticotroph Cell Adenomas

these tumors are ______cphilic or chromophobic and stain positively with periodic acid schiff (PAS) stains b/c of the presence of carbohydrate in the ACTH precursor molecule
basicophillic
excess production of ACTH by the corticotroph adenoma leads excess production of ACTH by the corticotroph adenoma leads to:
adrenal hypersecretion of cortisol and the development of hypercortisolism (also know as cushing syndrome)...
hypopituitarism refers to
decreased secretion of pituitary hormones, which can result from diseases of the hypothalamus or of the pituitary
hypofunction of the anterior pituitary occurs when approximately ______% of the parenchyma is lost or absent...
75%
hypopituitarism result of
may be congenital or the a variety of acquired abnormalities that are intrinsic to the pituitary...
most cases of hypofunction arise from ______ processes directly involving the anterior pituitary
destructive
destructive processes examples:
tumors, ischemic necrosis of the pituitary, and the empty sella syndrome, although other mechanisms hae been identified...
Sheehan's syndrome, also known as _______ pituitary necrosis,
postpartum pituitary necrosis,
Sheehan's syndrome cause
results from the sudden infarction of the anterior lobe of the pituitary..
Sheehan's syndrome can occur with obstetric complications, such as ______ or ______...
hemorrhage or shock
the pituitary gland normally ______ in size during pregnancy
doubles
hypo______during delivery decreases blood flow and may result in infarction of the anterior pituitary...
hypovolemia
Sheehan's syndrome produces symptoms of ______.
hypopituitarism
hypopituitarism...the initial sign is cessation of ______.
lactation
hypopituitarism may be followed by secondary amenorrhea due to the loss of ______tropins.
gonadotropins
other signs of hypopituitarism include:
hypothyroidism and decreased functioning of the adrenal gland...
hypopituitarism not an emergency b/c other ______ hormones still keep working...
endocrine
ADH deficiency causes
diabetes insipidus,
diabetes insipidus
excessive urination (polyuria) owing to an inability of the kidney to resorb water properly from the urine...
ADH excess causes resorption of excessive amounts of free water, resulting in hypo______
natremia
most frequent causes of SIADH include
the secretion of ectopic ADH by malignant neoplasms (particularly small cell carcinomas of the lung), non-neoplastic diseases of the lung, and local injury to the hypothalamus or posterior pituitary (or both)....
clinical manifestations of SIADH are dominated by
hyponatremia, cerbral edema, and resultant neurologic dysfunction
(SIADH)
Syndrome of Inappropriate ADH
Syndrome of Inappropriate ADH
SIADH
Craniopharyngiomas
derived from vestigial remnants of rathke pouch...
Craniopharyngiomas describe
slow growing tumors account for 1-5% of intracranial tumors; some of these lesions arise within the sella, but most are suprasellar...
Craniopharyngiomas
children usually come to clinical attention b/c of
endocrine deficiencies such as growth retardation,
Craniopharyngiomas
adults usually present
in the visual disturbances...bitemporal heminopsia...
pituitary hormonal deficiencies, including diabetes insipidous, are common/uncommon.
common