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54 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
What 5 joints play key roles in hand function and placement?
1. Scapulothoracic
2. Glenohumeral
3. Elbow
4. Radioulnar
5. Wrist
What 4 segments make up the upper limb?
1. Shoulder
2. Arm
3. Forearm
4. Hand
What is the pectoral girdle?
A bony ring consisting of
-Scapulae
-Clavicles
-Manubrium of the sternum.
What 3 regions are included in the shoulder?
-Pectoral
-Scapular
-Lateral supraclavicular
What is another name for:
-Arm
-Forearm
-Hand
Arm = brachium
Forearm = antebrachium
Hand = manus
What bone is contained in the brachium?
Humerus
What bones are contained in the antebrachium?
Radius and Ulna
What bones are within the hand?
Carpus, metacarpus, phalanges
What does the pelvic girdle consist of?
The two hip bones connected to the sacrum.
What does the Pectoral girdle consist of?
The two scapulae and clavicles connected to the manubrium of the sternum.
What is the Axial Skeleton composed of?
-Cranium
-Vertebral column
-Thoracic cage
What is the prominent difference between the pectoral and pelvic girdles?
Pelvic = complete ring
Pectoral = incomplete; no posterior connctn btwn scapulae.
What makes up the Superior Appendicular Skeleton?
-Pectoral girdle
-Bones of the free upper limb
Where does the superior appendicular skeleton articulate with the axial skeleton?
ONLY at the manubrium -> the sternoclavicular joint!!
What muscles (general) support & stabilize the pectoral girdle?
Axioappendicular muscles
What 3 terms are used to describe the clavicle?
-Sternal end
-Shaft
-Acromial end
What are the 3 functions of the clavicle?
1. Crane like strut - lets the upper limb hang free
2. Bony boundary of cervicoaxillary canal - protects neurovascular bundle to upper limb.
3. Transmits shocks from upper limb to axial skeleton.
What type of bone is the clavicle?
A long bone.
What is the Conoid Tubercle?
Attachment of conoid ligament near acromial end of clavicle.
What is the conoid ligament?
The medial part of the coracoclavicular ligament that suspends the upper limb from the clavicle.
Where is the trapezoid line on the clavicle?
Just lateral and inferior to the conoid tubercle
What is the trapezoid line for?
Attachment of the trapezoid ligament
What is the Trapezoid ligament?
The lateral part of the coracoclavicular ligament.
What is the subclavian groove? Where is it?
The attachment point for the Subclavius; on the inferior anterior side of clavicle.
What ligament binds the 1st rib to the clavicle?
Costoclavicular ligament.
What are common causes of clavicular fractures?
Blows to outstretched hand in children, Fall directly on the shoulder.
Which part of the clavicle is weakest?
Junction of middle and lateral thirds.
What is unique about clavicle ossification?
-First long bone to ossify
-Last long bone to be fully formed.
What ribs does the scapula overlie?
2-7
What are the posterior surfaces of the scapula?
-Spine
-Supraspinous fossa
-Infraspinous fossa
What is the interior surface of the scapula called?
Costal surface (near ribs)
Whatisthe costal surface called?
Subscapular fossa
What does the spine of the scapula end in laterally?
The acromion
What does the acromion articulate with?
The acromial end of the clavicle
What tubercle is on the scapular spine?
Deltoid tubercle
What joint lies directly under the AC joint?
Glenohumeral joint
What lies between the AC and glenohumeral joints?
The coracoclavicular ligament which suspends and acts as a point of balance for the scapula and upper limb.
What surface on the scapula allows for the glenohumeral joint?
Glenoid cavity
What finger-like or beaklike structure points from the upper lateral scapula?
Coracoid process
What is the largest bone in the upper limb?
The Humerus!
What bones does the humerus articulate with?
Superiorly - Scapula

Inferiorly - Radius/Ulna
What are the 2 necks of the humerus?
Anatomical neck
Surgical neck
Where are the lesser/greater tubercles of the humerus?
On the head;
Lesser = anterior/medial
Greater = Lateral
What is the Intertubercular groove?
Aka, Bicipital;
Seperates greater/lesser tubercles.
Biceps Longhead tendon lies there.
What 2 prominent features are on the shaft of the humerus?
-Deltoid tuberosity
-Radial groove
What is the deltoid tuberosity?
The site of attachment of the deltoid muscle on the humerus.
What is the radial groove?
The groove for the radial nerve.
Mooving on to fascia
ok
What does the pectoral fascia invest?
The pectoralis major; continuous with abdominal wall.
What does the lateral border of pec fascia become?
axillary fascia
What fascial layer is deep to pec major?
Clavipectoral fascia
What does clavipectoral fascia enclose?
Subclavius and pectoralis minor
What is the costocoracoid membrane?
Part of the clavipectoral fascia that goes between pec minor and the subclavius.
What pierces the costocoracoid membrane?
-Thoracoacromial artery
-Lateral pectoral nerve
-Cephalic vein