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53 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Race/ancestry defined by what characteristics
phenotype, geography, language, ethnicity
Concept of Ancestry
it implies broad, geo defined populations. to be of value, social categories used must reflect everyday use in society
Concept of Race
Not a biological entity, continuum of variation, traits cluster in certain groups
Metric Traits
continuous measurement, statistical analysis
Non-metric Traits: advantages
not expensive or delicate equipment, easy and quick to perform, can be performed on fragment remains, sex does not need to be known
Non-metric Traits Disadvantages
inter-observer error, not clearly define, possible intra-observer error, rudimentary statistics -simple trait frequencies
African American Skull traits
-prognathic face
-wide nasal aperature
-rectangular orbits
-great inter-orbital breadth
-Quonset-hut nasal bones
-anterior facial prognathism
-small nasal spine
European Skull Traits
-pointed face-receding zygomatics
-narrow nasal aperature
-nasal still present
-minimal inter-orbital breadth
-steepled nasal bones
Native American/Asian
-comparatively flat-faced (forward projecting zygomatics)
-moderate width nasal aperature
-circular orbits
-tented nasal bones
forward projecting
-state of having straight jaws, African Americans
Anterior Femoral Curvature
curved in Europeans and Asians but straight in African Americans
Jante & Ousley 1985, based on data from FDB, provides discriminant functions based on the variables input into program
Fully Method of Stature Determination
measures different bones that make up stature, skull height, vertebrae height, femoral and tibial length, ankle height. measurements are added up and correction for tissue thickness is added, usually comes within 1 cm of the stature
Trotter and Gleser Method of stature determination
-measures maximum length of long bones - humerus, radius, ulna, femur, tibia, fibula.
-uses regression formula to determine stature, large sample size 50000, males and females, whites black asian hispanics
Problems in Stature Determination
Fully Method: small sample size of 164, all white males, may be inaccurate, and all died in concentration camps in WWII.
Trotter and Gleser: Tibia measurements -unknown how were made, were tibial spines included? malleolus? reserach indicates sometimes included but not always
Male Skull
-large, robust
-large browridges
-blunt orbital margins
-sloping foreheads
-large mastoids
-marked nuchal area
-square chin
-mandible - 90 degree angle
Female Skull
-small, gracite
-smaller browridges
-sharp orbital margins
-vertical forehead
-small mastoids
-gracile nuchal area
-pointed chin
-mandible greater than 90 degree
Male Pelvis
-narrow subpubic angle
-narrow sciatic notch
-short pubix
-small pelvic inlet
Female Pelvis
-wide subpubic angle
-wide sciatic notch
-long pubis
-large pelvic outlet
Male and Female femur
-mm attachments
-males has costal cartilage
Costal Cartilage
-females have little while men have it
How do we ID the dead?
-DNA: Nuclear:available for most large scale transportation disasters, but still luxury. Mitochondrial-match with relative
-Biological profile
-Idiosyncratic morphology: extra vertebrae, weird anomalies
-Unique life history- broken bones, pathology, dental work, surgical/artificial devices
Closed events
-know all individuals involved like in airplane crash
-each ID helps with subsequent ID's
-re-association of unknown fragments with ID'ed fragments
-exclusion matrices
Open events
-don't know all individuals involved (hurricane)
Presumptive ID
-mitochondrial DNA match, group characteristics, concordance b/w evidence of an antemortem fracture with a documented medical history, wallet, tattoo, scar, mole
Positive ID
-nuclear DNA match with known example, fingerprints, antemortem/postmortem radiographic comparison
Surgical devices
-staples, pacemakers
Skeletal Anamolies
fracture/break and it heals back, the callous
Dental ID
fragments from dentures, bridgework, metallic crown fragments, post fragments, porcelain
Age determination in subadults
-long bone measurement
-dental development: most accurate, controlled by genetic factors
-appearance of ossification centers: primary occurs during fetal development, secondary appear after birth, epiphyses
-Epiphyseal fusion: teenage, process, female first, EHAKWS, clavcal one of last bones to fuse, fontanel - gaps in skull of newborn - close during life and usually fused at 10
Age determination in adults
pubic symphysis: young-ridges, old-lipping and bony growths
Auricular surface- age changes in 8 phases
Sternal end of rib - ossification of cartilage, 4th rib
Cranial suture closure: in older ppl may start to fuse altogether
most often occurring, Periosteum pulled from bone causing irregular growth
-primarily on spine, lytic lesions on bone
-treponemal infection
-3rd stage affects bone
-absence of brain
-small brain
-one eye, two fused heads
-stone baby, hypercalcification
-joint inflammation, breakdown of subchondrial bone
-fusion of front of vertebral bodies, candle-wax like appearance
Rhuematoid arthritis
-worst form of arthritis in which inflammation occurs due to white blood cells moving into synovial membrane
Dental caries
-cavity; bacteria breakdown enamel
Periodontal disease
scalloped-appearance; bacteria breakdown alveolar margins
Linear enamel hypoplasis
disruption of growth, sign of malnutrition
Cribra Orbitalia
iron deficiency- anemia in children
Porotic Hyperstosis
adult iron-deficiency
remains of dead person after cremation
Reasons for disputed cremains
-comingling inevitable (Locard's principle of transfer)
-poor cremation practice/lack of standards
-retort design
How to ID cremains
-bone/tooth fragments
-cremation weights *presumptive
-cremation artifacts
-elemental analysis
rotary bladed processor
-reduces remains to ash and non-diagnostic bone fragmetns
-difficult to discern if human based solely on bone fragments
-engineered to reduce cremains to less than 200 cubic inches
Types of things found in remains
-Medical (pacemaker)
-Dental (crowns, dentures)
-Mortuary (needles)
-Personal (jewelry)
-Misc (brick fragments)