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17 Cards in this Set

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Ecology
The relationship between its species and its environment
2 main concerns of any organism
1) Finding food
2) Avoid becoming food
Basal metabolism
Rate at which an animal expends energy to maintain life when at rest
Active metabolism
energy requirements above base line - when organism is active
Growth rate
energetic demands associated with growth and development
Reproductive effort
energy requirements associated with conception, gestation, lactation
Characterize the relationship between basal metabolic rate and body size
- larger animals require require more calories than smaller animals, but fewer calories per unity of body weight
- small animals have higher energy requirements than large animals & require small amounts of high-quality foods that can be processed quickly
Identify the main sources of carbohydrates and protein for primates
Carbs = simple sugars in fruit or gum → energy
Protein = insects or young leaves → growth, reproduction, regulation of body functions
Why is ingesting proteins important for primates?
Primates cannot synthesize amino acids from simpler molecules in order to produce proteins, and so they must ingest them
Relationship between diet and body size
Energy requirements leads to body size
insectivores smaller than frugivores smaller than foliovores
Discuss how these dietary differences impact the complexity of the gut
insectivores: simple digestive tract
carnivores: simple digestive tract
omnivores: ???
frugivores: simple digestive tract, larger species have large stomachs to hold leaves consumed
gumivores: short, relatively simple digestive tract & a small body size
foliovores: b/c primates cannot directly digest cellulose, they have colonies of microorganisms inside the cecum (part of digestive tract) which break down cellulose
Home range vs. territory
- Home ranges = a relatively fixed area that contains all the resources for feeding, resting, and sleeping
- Territories = contains all the same resources, except it is defended → maintenance of exclusive access to mates and food
When territories will be defended
and
what are the costs and benefits of doing so
**When benefits outweigh the costs b/c of measure of individual ability to survive and reproduce → depends largely on spatial and seasonal distribution of resources
Costs:
constant vigilance
defense of resources
increased within-group competition
Benefits:
prevents exploitation by outsiders
Social organization varies in...
size, age-sex composition, and degree of cohesiveness
5 types of social organization
- 1 male, multi-female (gorillas)
- 1 female, multi-male
- Multi-male, multi-female (chimpanzees)
- 1 male, 1 female (gibbons)
- Solitary = multiple females within the territory of a male, come together and disperse (Orangutans)
When is defense of food profitable?
When:
Food items are relatively valuable
Food resources are spatially/temporally clumped
Enough food for several individuals
(3) Costs and (2) benefits of social life
3 Ds
Costs:
- More competition for food/mates
- More vulnerable to disease
- Various hazards like cannibalism, cuckoldry, incest, infanticide

Benefits:
- Safety from predation → Detection Deterrence Dilution
- Greater ability to acquire/control resources