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84 Cards in this Set

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T or F? Meningiomas often incite an osteoblastic reaction in the overlying cranial bones
True
Negri bodies?
Rabies
T or F? Glioblastoma is an astrocytoma
True
Which tumor can cause a butterfly lesion crossing between the cerebral hemispheres?
Glioblastoma multiforme
Tumor with whorls of cells and scattered psammoma bodies..
Meningioma
VDRL?
Syphilis
Subarachnoid hemorrhage and/or seizures involving the cerebral hemispheres
AV malformation
Tuberous sclerosis?
Neurocutaneous disorder - tubers (hamartomas in the brain, skin, pancreas, and cardiac rhabdomyomas
Cerebellar angiomas associated with...
von Hippel-Lindau
Nevus flammeus associated with..?
Sturge-Weber (port-wine nevus_
T or F? Intermittently raised pressure hydrocephalus classically causes memory loss, urinary incontinence, and gait abnormalities
True
Failure of upward gaze?
Pinealoma
Bilateral loss of pain and temp sensation in the upper extremities - what malformation?
Arnold-Chiari --> syringomyelia
The atrophy in Pick's disease affects which lobes?
Frontal, temporal
Classic triad of Parkinson's
Tremors, rigidity, and akinesia
Anterograde amnesia and confabulation
Korsakoff syndrome
Subependymal giant cell astrocytoma
Tuberous sclerosis
Describe primary CNS lymphoma lesions in AIDS patients?
Multicentric, may involve leptomeninges
T or f? Friedreich's ataxia is related to atrophy of the spinal cord.
True
Cystic brain lesion filled with dark, oily fluid...
Craniopharyngioma
Half of all intraparenchymal hemorrhages involve the...
Basal ganglia and internal capsule
Demyelination of the......can follow overly rapid correction of severe hyponatremia?
central ponsq
Arnold-Chiari type 2?
More severe, cerebellar vermis and medulla are displaced through the foramen magnum
Elongated intracytoplasmic neuronal inclusions
Negri bodies --> rabies
Intracytoplasmic spherules composed of paired helical filaments?
Pick bodies
Multinucleated giant cells are typical in which viral encephalitis?
HIV encephalitis
Fried egg cells in a brain tumor?
Oligodendroglioma
Histologic progression of MS
1. Acute - Lymphohistiocytic infiltration and myelin breakdown
2. Hyperplastic gliosis (astrocytosis) - GEMISTOCYTES
Brain tumor in kids with evidence of both neuronal and glial differentiation?
Medulloblastoma
Associate neurofibromas with...?
Neurofibromatosis type 1
Associate meningiomas with...?
Breast cancer, high estrogen states
Associate acoustic neuromas with...?
Neurofibromatosis type II
definition of papilledema?
Swelling of the optic disk usually due to increased ICP
How do Abscesses look on CT?
White rings around black low-attenuation centers in the brain...?
What could explain a catastrophic hemorrhage in an Alzheimer's patient?
Amyloid angiopathy
Corkscrew-shaped eosinophilic fibers
Rosenthal fibers - seen in pilocytic astrocytoma, reactive gliosis
Paired helical filaments in neurofibrillary tangles are due to...?
Abnormal phosphorylation of tau
Retinal angioma in which syndrome?
von Hippel Lindau
This brain tumor shows necrosis and hemorrhage on biopsy...
Glioblastoma multiforme
Location of glioblastoma in adults? Kids?
Adults - cerebral cortex
Kids - Brainstem
Ki-67
nuclear factor - used to determine neoplastic replicative activty
HSV encephalitis affects which parts of the brain?
Lower portions of cerebral cortex --> temporal lobes and base of the frontal lobes
chorda tympani branch of VII controls salivation from...?
submandibular and sublingual glands
Which nerve runs closest (laterally) to the pituitary?
Abducens
Which nerve lies in the tonsillar fossa?
Glossopharyngeal
Which cranial nerves emerge from the cerebellopontine angle?
Facial and vestibulocochlear
Which nerve moves the hyoid bone anteriorly to open the pharynx?
C1 - ansa cervicalis
Olfactory bulb sends axons to...?
Pyriform cortex
Median nerve passes through which muscle after the elbow?
Pronator teres
Satiety center?
Ventromedial nucleus
Locked-in syndrome is caused by a lesion in...
the pons (ventral)
What passes through the greater sciatic foramen?
Superior gluteal nerve (above the piriformis) and the sciatic nerve (below the piriformis
Parinaud's syndrome
Affects vertical gaze center - dorsal midbrain (superior colliculi)
Which nerve is required to make the 'kuh' sound?
Vagus - raises the palate
Nail of the index finger is innervated by...?
Median nerve
chemoreceptor trigger zone - located where?
floor of 4th ventricle
Innervation from upper part of posterior pharynx? Lower part?
IX
X
Myasthenia gravis mechanism
Autoimmune damage to the acetylcholine receptor in the NMJ
CMV lab work
India ink
Urease positive
Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis
Rare late complication of measles infection at an early age
Which two amoeba have a propensity for causing meningoencephalitis?
Naegleria fowleri and Acanthamoeba
Neuroepithelial cells?
Astrocytes and oligodendrocytes (both derived from glioblasts)
Chlamydia induced blindness
Corneal infection, then scarring
Ventriular-peritoneal shunt infection?
Staph epidermidis
Mississippi river bed yeast
Crypto
Embolization from infective endocarditis typically causes abscesses in which lobe?
Parietal
Most likely cause of active toxo infection?
Reactivation of latent infection
neostigmine mechanism of action?
carbamylation of AChesterase
Primidone has a cross-sensitivity to...?
Phenobarbital
OD on TCAs could cause/
Lethal arrhythmias
Immediate lowering of intraocular pressure?
Acetazolamide
Phenelzine?
MAO inhibitor
Trihexyphenidyl?
Anti-muscarinic used in Parkinson's
HTN emergency?
>130 mm HG DIASTOLIC pressure
Mechanism of sumatriptan?
Serotonin agonist
Reinforcing effects of ampethamines caused by?
Dopamine release
Which antidepressant is contraindicated in patients with bulimia or anorexia?
Bupropion
Neorucyticercosis?
Taenia solium infection (cysts are involved in the CNS)...most common parasitic infection of the CNS... most frequently encountered in Mexico, Southeast Asia, etc.
Strep agalactiae?
Group B strep
Alar plate forms what?
dorsal spinal cord
Bilateral acoustic neuromas are associated with...?
Neurofibromatosis type II --> 22qn (all the 2's...bi-lateral, nfm type 2, 22q, etc)
Perivenous microglial involvement with demyelination...?
Post-infectious (ie measles) encephalomyelitis
encysted bradyzoites?
toxoplasmosis
Anterolateral part of the spinal cord affects which muscle group?
Distal extensors