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110 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Best tx for staph food poisoning?
Bed rest
Bacterial infection from raw oyster?
Cholera
What is the antibx of choice for severe cholera?
Tetracycline
Tightly knotted ball of nematodes (15 to 35 cm in length), worms have tapered ends without hooks...species?
Ascaris lumbricoides
Which Vibrio cholera serogroup is the most common cause of cholera epidemics?
01
Celiac disease is associated with which HLAs? Predisposes to which neoplasms?
HLA-B8 and DQW2, predisposes to T-cell lymphoma, and GI and breast cancer
The retropharyngeal space is located between which two layers of fascia?
Buccopharyngeal layer of deep cervical fascia and the prevertebral layer of deep cervical fascia
Metoclopramide is used to treat...? can antagonize which receptors?
Prokinetic agent used to treat GERD. Can antagonize dopamine receptors.
Both pancreatic buds form from evaginations from which part of the duodenum?
Second part
Which antibiotic can cause a disulfiram-like reaction when taken with alcohol?
Metronidazole
Which vessel gives off the short gastric arteries?
Splenic artery
Internal hemorrhoids are produced by varicosities of which vein?
Superior rectal vein
Misoprostol is what type of drug? Prophylaxis to prevent...?
Prostaglandin analog to prevent NSAID-induced ulcers
Which muscle elevates the lower jaw during chewing? Moves the lower jaw forward? Backward?
Medial pterygoid. Lateral pterygoid. Temporalis
Which salivary gland has the greatest % of mucus secreting cells? Serous?
Sublingual. Parotid.
Which H2-receptor antagonist is a potent hepatic enzyme inhibitor?
Cimetidine
What type of mucosa is normal for the distal esophagus?
Non-keratinized, stratified, squamous epithelium
What ligament separates the greater peritoneal sac from the right portion of the lesser peritoneal sac?
Gastrohepatic ligament
What type of heterotopia can occur in the small intestine without causing bleeding?
Pancreatic heterotopia
The left renal vein drains into...?
IVC
The splenorenal ligament contains which vessels?
The splenic artery and vein
Mesalamine is indicated for the treatment of...?
Ulcerative colitis.
Pseudomembranous colitis produces what kind of diarrhea?
Greenish, foul-smelling watery diarrhea.
The right gastroepiploic artery is a branch of...?
Gastroduodenal artery
Which anesthetic can cause idiosyncratic hepatic failure?
Halothane
Elevated AST and ALT reveal what process in which tissue?
Hepatocellular death
CCK is secreted in response to...?
The presence of amino acids and fatty acids in the duodenum
Ondansetron selectively antagonizes which receptors?
5HT3 receptors
Lipoprotein lipase is located where?
External surface of endothelium of tissues with triglyceride needs such as muscle and lactating breast.
What type of stones can be seen in liver fluke infestation?
Bilirubin stones
The free edge of the lesser omentum contains which three important structures?
Common bile duct, hepatic artery, and the portal vein
What agents are absolutely contraindicated in patients with bowel obstruction?
Prokinetics, such as metoclopramide
Gastroschisis? Caused by?
Abdominal viscera protrude from the abdominal cavity at birth. Caused by incomplete fusion of the lateral body folds
Motilin is released by...?
Small intestine
How does secretin affect the rate of stomach emptying?
Decreases the rate of stomach emptying
Inferior rectal nerve is a branch of...?
Pudendal nerve of the sacral plexus
Sepsis, hypotensions, and neutrophilia in an infant who has been started on oral foods....?
Necrotizing enterocolitis.
Which narcotic is least likely to cause spasm of the sphincter of Oddi? Why?
Meperidine, due to its anti-muscarinic properties.
Superior pancreaticoduodenal artery gets it's blood supply from? Inferior?
Celiac trunk by means of the common hepatic artery. SMA.
Which tx for GERD could cause torsades de pointes when given with erythromycin?
Cisapride.
Disulfiram?
a drug used to support the treatment of chronic alcoholism by producing an acute sensitivity to alcohol.
This parasite can cause mild diarrhea, or more aggressive dysentery, peritonitis, or liver abscess formation...
Entamoeba histolytica
Microabscesses in mesenteric lymph nodes is associated with which bug?
Yersinia enteritis
Enlarged and ulcerated Peyer's patches are associated with which infection?
Salmonella typhii
Cholera enterotoxin activates which enzyme?
Adenylate cyclase
Megaloblastic anemia can be caused by which parasite?
Diphyllobothrium latum
Kid vomits up a cylindrical white worm 30 cm long...How was this organism acquired?
Ingestion of eggs from human feces (Ascaris lumbricoides)
Which hepatitis virus is a major cause of epidemics but does not cause significant mortality in pregnant women?
Hepatitis A
A patient with dumping syndrome should eat small, frequent meals that are high in...?
Fat
What deficiency could cause a decrease in serum calcium and phosphate?
Vitamin D
Mini epidemic of pediatric diarrhea..?
Yersinia
Traveler's diarrhea - empiric tx?
Ciprofloxacin
Undercooked chicken - bloody diarrhea, abdominal pain, and fever...?
Campylobacter jejuni
Liver abscesses - what parasite..?
Entamoeba histolytica
OOcysts 5-7 microns in diameter...organism? Where does it's sexual phase occur?
Crytosporidiosis - invades the brush border of the intestinal epithelium
An obstruction in the common bile duct would affect the urine how?
Increased urine bilirubin - tea-colored urine
Oval eggs flattened along one side? Causes anal pruritis?
Enterobius vermicularis (pinworm)
Hep B infection causes what in the majority of cases?
Subclinical disease followed by recovery
Darkly colored faceted stones with irregular shapes are associated with which infestation?
Opisthorchis sinensis (oriental liver fluke)
Rotavirus symptoms in kids?
Watery non-bloody diarrhea, often coupled with nausea and vomiting
Norwalk agent usually affects kids older than..?
2
A stomach lesion on the lesser curvature with piled up ulcer edges suggests...?
Gastric carcinoma
What are predisposing factors for gastric carcinoma?
Pernicious anemia, chronic gastritis, achlorhydria, bacterial overgrowth, and neoplastic polyps
Achlorhydria?
Absence of HCl in the stomach
Type A gastritis - increased or decreased likelihood of developing gastric carcinoma?
Increased
Symptoms of fever, chills, hypotension, and fluid-filled blisters progressing to muscle necrosis...?
Vibrio vulnificus
Nonmotile bug, cuases dysentery?
Shigella
Plague bug?
Yersinia pestis
Hypertrophic pyloric stenosis usually presents when?
Several weeks of age
The parasympathetic preganglionic innervation to the internal anal sphincter is provided by which nerve?
Pelvic nerve
Courvoisier sign?
Painless distention of the gallbladder
Which bug produces exotoxin A?
Staph aureus
Which apolipoprotein molecule activates lipoprotein lipase?
CII
Supparative cholangitis can occur as a complication of infestation by...?
Roundworm (ascaris lumbricoides) and the liver flukes Clonorchis sinensis and Fasciola hepatica
Which damaging agents could cause development of hepatocellular carcinoma in the setting of cirrhosis?
HBV, alcohol, hemochromatosis
Loss of villi and intraepithelial lymphocytic infiltration?
Celiac sprue
Granular, spherical, thin-walled cysts measuring 10-20 um in diameter...trichrome stains show up to four nuclei in most of the cysts...?
Entamoeba histolytica
scleral icterus typically reflects which fraction of biliribuin that binds tissues more avidly..?
Uncojugated bilirubin
Which nodes drain the greater curvature of the stomach? The bladder and male internal genitalia? The distal stomach, pancreas and duodenum?
Gastroepiploic nodes. Internal iliac nodes. Subpyloric nodes.
What are the most important predictors of a carcinoid's metastatic potential?
Location and size
Acute hemorrhagic pancreatitis causes what changes to the pancreas?
Autodigestion, chalky-white 'fat necrosis,' hemorrhagic, edematous
Name two polyposis syndromes that do not preispose for colon cancer?
Juvenile polyposis syndrome and Peutz-Jeghers syndrome
Glands and sawtooth crypts with a proliferation of goblet and columnar epithelial cells - what type of polyp?
Hyperplastic polyp
What is a pancreatic pseudocyst?
Complication of pancreatitis - lined by granulation tissue and collagen, containing pancreatic juices and lysed blood.
Acetaminophen toxicity would cause elevation in which enzymes?
AST and ALT
This is formed by herniation of the mucosa at a point of weakness at the junction of the pharynx and esophagus in the posterior hypopharyngeal wall…?
Zenker’s diverticulum
What is the triad of Plumner-Vinson syndrome?
Esophageal webs, atrophic glossitis, and iron-deficiency anemia
Markedly enlarged rugal folds can be seen in several conditions, including…?
Infiltrative cancer, lymphoma, hypersecretory gastropathy, and Menetrier disease
What is Menetrier disease?
Men at rear – protein losing enteropathy – marked hyperplasia of mucus-secreting cells.
Tuberculosis GI involvement?
Mass lesions and strictures
Oral squamous cell carcinoma is most often located...? Which HPV is associated with almost half of all oral cancers?
Floor of the mouth. HPV16
Acute gastritis can be seen as a complication of which other conditions?
Alcohol use, NSAIDs, smoking, shock, steroid use, and uremia
Which autoimmune disease is associated with atrophic gastritis?
Pernicious anemia
Tumor composed of uniform round cells arranged in trabeculae, with a 'salt-and-pepper' chromatin pattern
Carcinoid
Cardiac failure, megaesophagus in Brazilian man...?
Chagas
One of the most common etiologic agents of infective esophagitis...?
Herpes simplex
What parts of the liver are Zones 1, 2, and 3, associated with...?
Zone 1 - periportal
Zone 2 - intermediate
Zone 3 - Central vein
Which liver zone contains the P450 oxidase enzyme system?
Zone 3
Disease characterized by inflammation and fibrosis of the intrahepatic and extrahepatic bile ducts, producing alternating strictures and dilatation...?
Primary sclerosing cholangitis
Usual cause of intestinal amebiasis, with small nuclei with distinctive tiny central karyosomes..?
Entamoeba histolytica
Most likely cause of sudden gastrointestinal obstruction?
Intussusception
On biopsy, this protozoan appears crescent-shaped...?
Giardia lamblia
Tumors from the penis, vagina, and anal canal drain to which lymph nodes?
Medial side of the horizontal chain of the superficial group of inguinal lymph nodes
Eosinophilic cytoplasmic inclusions...?
Mallory bodies
Predisposing condition to angiosarcoma in the liver?
Vinyl chloride exposure (used in the rubber industry)
Liver steatosis would progress to what if the noxious stimulus is removed?
Complete regression
Pancreatic calcifications constitute strong radiologic evidence of...?
Chronic pancreatitis
T or F? Pernicious anemia is an autoimmune disease associated with atrophic gastritis
True
Celiac sprue is located...?
Proximal small bowel
Polycythemia vera woman develops progressive severe ascites and tender hepatomegaly..?
Budd-Chiari