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37 Cards in this Set

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Meat inspection?
what does it accomplish?
what does it include?
is it mandatory?
who pays for meat inspection?
- insures saftey of product
- includes checking live animals before and after slaughter, the carcass, and all steps of meat processing
- inspection is mandatory (FSIS of USDA)
- paid for by tax payers
What are the two types of meat grading?
Do they depend on each other?
Is it manditory?
Who pays for it?
QUALITY grading
YIELD grading
No
No
processors
quality grades
separate (or group) carcasses based on tenderness, juiciness and flavor
yield grades
based on the %% of edible meat in a carcass
What are the quality grades for young animals? (highest to lowest)
Prime
Choice
Select
Standard
What are the quality grades for older animals? (highest to lowest)
Commercial
Utility
Cutter
Canner
What is the breaking point between young and old animals?
about 42 months
Quality grading -- what does the grader do?
1. determine the sex of the carcass
2.determines age (maturity) of carcass
3. determines the degree of marbling between the 12-13 ribs
(maturity and marbling are the main components)
official classifications of sex of beef carcasses:
steers
heifers
cows
bullocks (A maturity only)
Bulls (B maturity and older)
characterisic of steer carcass
cod fat is rough
"diamond-shaped" muscle above aitch bone
pizzle eye
characteristics of heifer carcass
udder fat is smooth
"kidney shaped" muscle above aitch bone
wider in pelvic region than steer
characeristics of bullock carcass
less fat in cod area (wasn't castrated)
thickness in neck; pizzle eye
jump muscle in loin area
darker meat
characteristic of cow carcass
wider in pelvic region
age (maturity) classifications of carcass
A
B
(Young)
C
D
E
(Mature)
what is the BIGGEST factor in tenderness?
AGE. Tenderness goes down as age class increases
What is maturity (age) based on?
the degree of ossification of bone
general order of maturation
sacral (early) --> lumbar --> thoracic (late)
What does marbling refer to?
What is it related to?
correlation between marbling and tenderness is....
it refers to the intramuscular fat (flecks of fat within the lean) thatgives meat a spotted appearance.
it is related to flavor and juiciness
LOW
What are the beef yield grades?
which is the best and worst?
1 2 3 4 5

1 = best -- high amount of lean relative to the amt of fat
5 = worst -- low amount of lean relative to the amt of fat
yield grade definition:
(also called cutability grades)
% boneless closely trimmed retail cuts from the
-round
-loin
-rib
-chuck
what are the "four wholesale cuts"?
round
loin
rib
chuck
what are four factors in the yield grade equation?
1. backfat (BF) measured 3/4 the way down from chine at 12-13 rib
2. area of ribeye at 12-13 rib
3. hot carcass weight
4. % kidney, pelvic and heart fat (KPH fat)
basic values of rib eye to know:
beef
pork
600 lb carcass should have an 11 square inch rib eye
and KPH = 3.5%of carcass weight

Pork:
expect a 5.5 square inch rib eye
wholesale cuts of pork carcass
ham
loin
blade (boston) shoulder
arm (picnic shoulder)
side (AKA belly)
are pork carcasses normally ribbed for LEA measurements like beef?
NOPE!
but IF the LEA is measured, the carcass is split at the 10-11 ribs
What are the pork quality grades?
-no quality grading standards
- either acceptable or unacceptable

good = reddish-pink, firm lean, fine marbling

PSE pork (pale, soft, exudative), dark lean = unacceptable
what are the yield grades used for pork?
What cuts are they based on?
graded as US No. 1, 2, 3, 4 or Utility
based on:
ham
loin
blade (boston) shoulder
arm (picnic) shoulder
beef vs. pork yield grades
beef yield grades: "4 wholesale cuts"

pork yield grades: "4 lean cuts"
equation for pork yield grades
US grade = (4 X last rib BF) - (muscling score)

(BF measured at last rib)
(muscling score
1= thin
2= average
3=thick)
for a 1000 lb steer, how many pounds of retail cuts?
-dressing percent?
- % retail cuts from carcass?
(equation)
dressing % = 60-62% for choice grade
% from carcass = ~70% (60-80 range)
~ 420 lb. retail from 1000 lb steer (1000 x 0.60 x 0.70)
beef yield grading: general procedures
1. measure BF and determine a preliminary yield grade (PYG)
2. Adjust PYG up or down based on carcass, ribeye, % KPH fat
When adjusting for beef yield grading, _____ to PYG for excess fat and _____ subtract for "extra" muscling
ADD
SUBTRACT
In the meat industry, YG is reported as a ______ ______. Fractions are _____, not ______.
single digit
dropped
rounded
Beef yield grades muscling score
1= thin

2= average

3=thick
(backfat is measured at last rib)
pork carcass with _____ muscling cannot grade US No. 1
thin
pork carcasses with 1.75" or greater BF must grade US No. ___.
4
pork grade US Utility is for...
carcasses with "unacceptable lean quality, fat too soft or oily, or bellies too thin for bacon production