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44 Cards in this Set

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What is the order of food transfer through the pig?
mouth to esophagus to stomach to the SI to the LI to the rectum
What enzyme is in saliva that helps break down food before it gets to the stomach?
amylase
What 4 things does the stomach secrete to aid digestion?
HCL, mucus, pepsin, gastrin
What is the sphincter valve? What does it do? Where is it?
at the junction of stomach and esophagus. It prevents feed from coming up the esophagus when stomach contractions occur
What is chyme?
mixed food that comes from the stomach
Where is the most important place for digestion and absorption? What are ready for absorption?
the SI. AA, fatty acids, monosaccharides.
What are the two types of absorption?
passive = diffusion
active = molec. are engulfed by SI wall cells and then transported to bloodstream
What does the large intestine do?
absorbs water and makes feces
What does the reticulum's function?
it interacts with the rumen to help mixing process. Provides additional area for fermentation
What is the rumen?
it is a fermentation vat where microbes break down roughages to obtain nutrients for them.
What is the omasum? What is another word for it?
a place for water removal or absorption -- manypiles
What is the abomasum? What is it parallel to in monogastric animals?
the "true" stomach.
stomach
What are starch, protein, and fats broken down to in the SI?
starch to glucose (primary source of energy)
protein to amino acids
fats to 3 fatty acids and glycerol
What are concentrates?
a high (concentrated) diet that is high in grain (corn, etc). They are high in energy, low in fiber and easy to digest
What are roughages?
a high fibrous diet. feeds like hay. usually NO or little grain. They are high in fiber, low in energy and not very easy to digest
What are Volatile Fatty Acids? Are they water soluble? What are the three different individual types of them?
microbes break down glucose to VFAs. They are the microbes waste product, but the animals major source of energy. They are water soluble.
Acetic Acid
Propionic Acid
Butyric Acid
Is glucose absorbed by the rumenent?
Not usually -- the microbes break glucose down.
What is protein broken down into? What is that product broken down into?
Amino Acids
carbon skeletons and NH3
What happens when a cow is rumenating?
chewing their cud! (they regiritate it and chew it up more so that the food is broken down more)
What is a cecum in a horse? What is it equal to in a cow?
a microbal fermentation vat. equal to a cow's rumen.
Why is a horse not able to absorb [most of the] the microbe protein?
because it is formed in the cecum, which is after the SI where digestion and absorption occurs.
What does the stomach secrete to aid digestion?
HCl, mucus, pepsin, gastrin
What does pepsin do?
in the stomach, breaks proteins down into polypeptides
What is the duodenum?
the portion of the SI that the stomach empties into
What is the pyloric sphincter's function? Where is it?
at junction of stomach and duodenum. It prevents feed from moving into or out of stomach.
following milk let down, new milk synthesis is stimulated by:
prolactin
Carbs are digested to
glucose
proteins are digested to
amino acids
vitamins are broken down into two classifications:
water
fat soluble
minerals are broken into two classifications:
macro
micro
proteins are digested to
amino acids
What hormone stimulates milk let down?
oxytocin
pig - where does protein digestion occur?
in the small intestine
pig - where does starch digestion occur?
in the small intestine
pig - where does cellulose digestion occur?
its not digested
horse - where does protein digestion occur?
small intestine
horse - where does starch digestion occur?
small intestine
horse - where does cellulose digestion occur?
in the cecum
cow - where does starch digestion occur?
rumen
cow - where are VFA absorbed?
small intestine
What are the % for fat, protein, lactose and solids in a cow's milk?
fat 3.6
protein 3.3
lactose 4.6
solids 12.5
What is an ewe's % milk fat?
5.4%
What is a sow's milk fat?
6.8%
What is a mare's milkfat?
1.3%