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67 Cards in this Set

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Key cellular components are...
cell membrane
cytoplasmic organelles
nucleus
Discuss the structure of cell membrane..
Outer cell membrane
plasma membrane and phospholipids, cholesterol and proteins
water impermeable barrier
__= model where there is phospholipids arranged with their polar heads facing proteins layers and non-polar tails face each other
fluid mosaic model
cell membrane contact and adhesion done by..
desmosomes
tight junctions
gap junctions
__= passive transport; distribution of a substance in a solvent such that it gets equally concentrated
-simple- down a concentration gradient
-facilitiated- down a conc. gradient but requires a carrier system (transmembrane protein)
-high to low, down a conc gradient
-perfume, gases etc
diffusion
__= passive transport system of mvt of water across a semipermeable membrane through water channels formed by transmembrane proteins ( aquaporins)
-osmotic pressure is the force behind it
osmosis
__= force that moves water from side with lower solute concentration to the side with higher in a cell
osmotice pressure
__= solution that has the same osmotic pressure as the RBC
-.9% NaCl ( normal physiologic saline)
isotonic
__= solution has lower osmotic pressure and is less concentrated than saline
-lower solute concentration than the cell, so mvt occurs into the cell, and causes the cell to swell-____
hypotonic

hemolysis
__= solution has higher osmotic pressure than the cell and is more concentrated than saline
-solution moves from lower concentration in the RBC to the higher concentration outside the cell causing ____, which causes the cell to shrink
hypertonic

crenation
___ transport- low to high concentration
___ required- hydrolyzed by ATPase activity of the carrier

____ of the carrier causes change in shape and mvt of molecule
active


phosphorylation
Describe what happens in active transport of the Na-K ATPase pump..
outside of the cell- high Na
inside the cell- high K
*we want to keep it that way
-Na-K ATPase moves Na to the outside (against the conc gradient) and K into the cell (against its conc gradient)
-3 Na ions bind on the inside of the cell
- ATP phosphorylates/induces the changein transporter
-Na ions released to the outside of the cell
-2 K ions bind outside the cell
-transporter dephosphorylates and conformational change occurs
-K ions released inside the cell (ICF)
What does the cell cytoplasm consist of..
cytosol (liquid component)
organelles
-endoplasmic reticulum
- mitochondria
- ribosomes
- lysosomes
cytoskeleton (filaments/microtubules)
__= membranous network of tubules/sheets with smooth or rough characteristics
endoplasmic reticulum
__= characteristic of the endoplasmic reticulum where lipid synthesis occurs of steroid hormones
-calcium storage
smooth endoplasmic reticulum
__=characteristic of the endoplasmic reticulum that is covered with ribosomes where protein synthesis occurs and glycosylation
-some cells have more of this than others
rough/granular endoplasmic reticulum
__= ovoid, double membrane with crista
-enzymes associated with the Kreb's cycle
-the "powerhouse" of the cell; ATP production
-the more in a cell, the more active it is
mitochondria
__= membrane bound vesicles that contain hydrolytic enzymes
-originate from ER and Golgi
-many found in WBC's (none in RBC's)
-engulf/degrade intracellular organelles
lysosomes
__= scattered throughout cytoplasm, largest and most rigid part

__= cell; "cell junction like" desmosomes

__= spindle fibers during cell division, cilia
microtubules

intermediate filaments

microfilaments
what are the 3 broad categories for cell components?
cytoplams
cytoskeleton
plasma membrane
What are the various types of epithelial tissues?
simple squamous
simple cuboidal
simple columnar
pseudostratified columnar
stratified squamous
stratified cuboidal
stratified coulmnar
transitional
what are the 4 basic types of tissues
epithelial
connective
muscle
nervous
epithelial tissue is classified by the ____ present and by ___

___= 1 layer

___= many layers
layers and shape

simple

stratified
Shape of cells

__= flat

__= square

__= tall
squamous

cuboidal

columnar
__= epithelial tissue; single layer of flattened cells with disc shaped central nuclei and sparse cytoplasm; the simplest of the epithelia
-Fxn: allows passage of materials by diffusion and filtration in sites where protection is important; secretes lubricating substances in serosa
-location- air sacs of lungs; lining of air sacs of lungs, lining of heart, blood vessels, and lymphatic vessels, lining of ventral body cavity (serosa)
simple squamous
__= epithelial tissue; single layer of cubelike cells with large spherical central nuclei
-Fxn; secretion and absorption
- location- kidney tubules, ducts and secretory portions of small glands; ovary surface
kidney tubules
__= epithelial tissue; single layer of tall cells with round to oval nuclei; some cells bear cilia; layer may contain mucous secreting unicellular glands (goblet cells)
-Fxn: absorption; secretion of mucus, enzymes, and other substances; ciliated type propels mucus(or repro cells) by ciliary action
-Location- stomach mucosa
simple columnar
__= epithelial tissue; single layer of cells of differing heights; some not reaching the free surface; nuclei seen at diff levels; may contain goblet cells and bear cilia
-Fxn: secretion; particularly of mucus; propulsion of mucus by cilary action
-location; trachea
pseudostratified columnar
__= epithelial tissue; thick membrane composed of several cell layers; basal cells are cuboidal or columnar; surface cells are flattened/squamous; the surface cells are full of keratin and dead; the basal cells are active in mitosis and produce more cells
-function; protects underlying tissues in areas subject to abrasion
-Location- esophagus
stratified squamous
__= epithelial tissue; generally 2 layers of cube-like cells
- fxn; protection
-location- sweat glands, salivary glands
stratified cuboidal
__= epithelial tissue; several cell layers; basal cells are cuboidal; superficial cells are elongated and columnar
-fxn; protection/secretion
-location- male urethra
stratified columnar
__= epithelial tissue; resembles both stratified squamous and stratified cuboidal; basal cells are cuboidal and columnar; surface cells are dome-shaped or squamous-like depending on degree of organ stretch
-fxn; stretches readily and permits distension of urinary organs
-location- ureters, bladder, and urethra
transitional
Muscle tissue functions...
what is unique about them?
they are contractile in nature and produce force and mvt

they are excitable- they conduct signals
what are the 3 types of muscle tissue?
cardiac
smooth
skeletal
__= type of muscle tissue; long, cylindrical, multinucleated cells with obvious striations
-Fxn: voluntary mvt, locomotion, manipulation of the environment, facial expression
-voluntary control
-Location- in skeletal muscles, attaches to bones or occasionally to the skin
skeletal
__= muscle tissue; branching, striated, generally uninucleated cells that come together at specialized junctions (intercalated discs)
- Fxn: as it contracts, it propels blood into circulation
-involuntary control
-Location- the heart
cardiac muscle tissue
__= muscle tissue; spindle-shaped cells with central nuclei; NO striations; cells arraged closely to form sheaths
-Fxn: propels substances or objects (food stuffs, urine etc) along internal passageways
-involuntary control
-Location- in the walls of hollow organs
smooth muscle tissue
__ tissue serves to connect other tissues
-gives form and strength to organs
-2 types- loose and dense
connective tissue
What are the types of connective tissue?
adipose/fat
cartilage
bone
blood
__= connective tissue with 3 types-

___= amorphous but firm matrix, collagen fibers form an imperceptible network; chondroblast produce the matrix and when mature chondrocytes lie in lacunae
-Fxn: supports and reinforces; has resilient cushionioning properties; resistive to compressive stress
-Location- costal cartilage, trachea
cartilage

hyaline cartilage
__ =connective tissue; cartilage; similar to hyaline cartilage but more elastic fibers in matrix
-Fxn: maintains the shape of a structure while allowing for great flexibility
-Location- ear pinna
elastic cartilage
__= connective tissue; cartilage; matrix similar to, but less firm than hyaline cartilage; thick collagen fibers predominate
-Fxn: tensile strength with the ability to absorb compressive shock
-Location- intervertebral discs
fibrocartilage
__= connective tissue; hard calcified matrix containing many collagen fibers; osteocytes lie in lacunae; very well vascularized
- Fxn: supports and protects by enclosing; provides levers for the muscles to act on; stores calcium and other minerals and fat; marrow inside bones is the site for blood cell formation (hematopoiesis)
-Location- bones
bone
__= red/white blood cells in a fluid matirx/ plasma
-Fxn: transport of respiratory gases, nutrients, wastes, and other substances
-location- contained within blood vessels
blood
What type of tissues are excitable?
neurons
muscle tissue
__= tissue; neurons send signals; excitable, electrical, chemical
nervous
__ cells support; "glue" cells
glial cells
pleura is a serous membrane found in ___ (organ)
thoracic cavity/lungs
Why is the rough endoplasmic reticulum called so?
Bc of its texture and appearance of ribosomes
-where protein synthesis occurs
What kind of epithelium is found in an organ that stretches and flattens out? (ex- urinary bladder)
transitional
____ is an example of active transport occuring across cell membranes. The transmembrane protein involved in this process is also an enzyme that changes confromation/shape upon ___
ATPase pump

phosphorylation
Epithelial tissue can be classified according to ___ and ___ of cells
shape and layers
__ and __ are the 2 types of cells in an animal's body that can be called "excitable".
neurons and muscle tissue
List 2 important functions of the skeletal system besides providing protection, support, and mvt
structure
storage of minerals
blood cell formation
Define osmosis...
Mvt of water across a semipermeable membrane through aquaporins
-passive transport
-low solute concentration to high solute concentration
The root word "dorsum" means ___, whereas "venter" means ___
back

towards the belly
define any 3 directional/positional terms.
Caudal- pointing towards the rear of the animal

medial- lying along the midline of an animal (spine)

- cranial- towards the head of an animal
What is the name given to the .9% NaCl solution
normal physiologic saline/isotonic solution
Why do cells differ morphologically?
shape/structure etc
have different functions
diffusion and osmosis are both __ transport systems.

Name the active transport system
passive

ATP expenditure- cell is positve on outside and negative on the inside; moves against the conc gradient
___ tissue covers, lines, protects; glands

__ tissue is binding, connecting, gives support and strucure
epithelial

connective
___- tissue contracts, receives changes, produce mvt of food bolus, blood, skeletal structure
muscle
__ tissue conducts electrical impulses to produce a function
- has specialized units that affect functions of the rest of the tissues
nervous
What makes bone a living tissue?
they grow, reproduce, subject to disease
-needs blood, and nerve supply
__= circular tissue of bones

__= eat/erode the bone and correct deformities
osteon

osteoclasts
___ is a connective tissue that carries oxygen and carbon dioxide
-majority of the cells are RBC's
blood
__ = cells that fight disease and eat

__= fight infection and respond to viruses
lymphocytes/neutrophils

neutrophils