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60 Cards in this Set

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Soma(cell body)
contains the metabolic organelles
Dendrite
receptor site
Axon
transmits information from neuron
Axon hillock
generator site for action potential
Terminal end button
contain synaptic vesicles
Myelin sheath
insulator of axon
schwann cells
Glial cells that form myelin in PNS
oligodendrocytes
they are glial cells that make myelin in CNS
Nodes of Ranvier
permit saltatory conduction
Neurotransmitter
substance that facilitates synapse
Synaptic cleft
region between pre- and postsynaptic neurons
Synapse
communication between two neurons
Mitochondria
organelles responsible for energy generation and protein development--- found in the button
Astrocytes
provide primary support for neurons, aid in the suspension of neurons and transport nutrients from the capillary supply.
microglial cell
perform housekeeping process know as phagocytosis.
they eat away damaged cell so that they do not cause infections
Myelin
speeds up neural conduction.
axons that have myelin wrapping around them are capable of conduction impulses at a greater rate than those who don't have them
Interneuron
largest class of neurons in the brain.
its job is to provide communications between the neurons, and they do not exit the CNS
motor neuron
efferent in nature
typically bipolar neurons that activate the muscular and glandular response
How the impulse
environment---sensors to sensory nerves (afferent)----spinal cord to brain to spinal cord---motor nerve to effectors(efferent)
Sensors
are the means by which your nervous system translates information concerning the internal and external environment onto a form (action potential, neural impulse) that is useable by the brain.—skin, mucous membrane, eyes, nose…
Effectors
are the means by which your body responds to changing conditions under the control of CNS.—muscles and glands
Nervous system
Central nervous system
Peripheral nervous system
CNS
Brain (cerebrum, cerebellum, subcortical structures, brainstem)
spinal cord
PNS
12 pairs of cranial nerves
31 pairs of spinal nerves
All sensory receptors
Autonomic Nervous System (ANS)
governs involuntary activities of the visceral muscles or viscera( cardiac, glandular, digestive)
subdivided into sympathetic system and parasympathetic system
Sympathetic system
Activates a variety of responses in a fight or flight situation
Includes:
increased heart rate
Respiration
Increased blood pressure
Energy mobilization
Decreased digestive and reproductive function
works for short term
Parasympathetic
Maintains heart rate, respiratory, metabolic, and digestive functions under normal conditions – opposite of sympathetic
Includes:
Slowing of heart rate
Decreased blood pressure
Constricts pupils
Constricts airways
Stimulates digestion
works long term
Somatic nervous system
Voluntary control to skeletal muscles.
The motor component divided into pyramidal and extra pyramidal systems
Pyramidal System
Directs all voluntary movements
Pathway from the cerebral cortex to the spinal cord and brain stem
Often organized into 2 tracts:
Corticospinal
Corticobulbar
Ascending tracts
sensory (afferent) fibers
Descending tracts
motor (efferent) fibers
Pyramidal System
Extrapyramidal system
Extrapyramidal system
All of the other descending pathways that are not included in the Pyramidal system
Coordinating pathway
Comprised of 4 descending pathways
Vestibulospinal pathway
Rubrospinal tract
Tectospinal tract
Olivospinal pathways
Reticular substance
Meninges
Dura mater
Arachnoid
Pia mater
Dura mater
tough bilayered, most superfical
outer layer though and inelastic and meningeal arteries course through this layer.
second layer epidural space
Arachnoid mater
the lining is lacy, spiderlike structure
a covering through which many blood vessels for the brain pass
Pia mater
thin, highly vascularized, that closely follows the contour of the brain
Function of meninges
To protect the brain: like a cushion, by CSF

To hold structures (lobes) in place during movement: dura mater is tough

To provide support for the structures
Dura matter infolds
Falx Cerebri
Falx Cerebelli
Tentorium Cerebelli

Diaphragma Sella
Tentorium Cerebelli
horizontal dural shelf that divides the cranium into superior (cerebral) and inferior (cerebellar) region it supports the cerebrum from compressing the cerebellum and the brain stem
Falx Cerebelli
in between the lobes of cerebellum
separating the left and right cerebellar hemisphere for protection and isolation
diaphragma Sella
forms boundary between pituitary gland and the hypothalaums and optic chiasm
Falx Cerebri
completely separates the two cerebral hemispheres down to the corpus callosum
CSF
cerbrospinal fluid produced by choroid plexus.
it buffers the brain (the cerebral hemispheres) and structures from sudden movements of the the head and also serves as transport function.
Ventricles
Lateral ventricles (paired)
Third Ventricle (unpaired)
Cerebral aqueduct
Fourth Ventricle (unpaired)
Cisterns
The subarachnoid space widens to form cisterns
The lumbar cistern is location of lumbar puncture (below L1)
Cerebral longitudinal fissure
separates the left and the right cerebral hemispheres
Cerebrum 5 lobes
Frontal lobe
occipital lobe
parietal lobe
temporal lobe
insular lobe
frontal lobe
Largest
Important in executive functions
Broca’s area located here
Also helps regulate memory, emotion motor inhibition and intellect
Contains the precentral gyrus or motor strip
Parietal Lobe
Important for sensation from the entire body
Contains the postcentral gyrus--sensory functions, supramarginal---motor planning of speech, and angular gyri--comprehension of written material
temporal lobe
Auditory and receptive language centers
Heschl’s gyrus-location of the brain where all the auditory information is projected

Wernicke’s area--damage to this area leads to disturbance in decoding spoken language
Occipital Lobe
Posterior aspect of the brain
Receives visual stimulation and higher level visual processing
insula
located deep region of the cerebrum known as operculum
Arcuate fasciculus
part of long associate fibers(does not cross hemispheres)
permits the superior and middle frontal gyri to communicate with the temporal, parietal, and occipital lobes.
dominant pathway between Broca's and wernicke's area.
Basal ganglia
group of cell bodies intimately related to the control of background movement and initiation of movement patterns.
Parts of Basal ganglia
Includes:
the caudate nucleus
putamen
globus pallidus

The globus pallidus and putamen combined together are termed the lentiform
The putamen and caudate nucleus together are called the striatum
Hypothalamus
Ventral to the thalamus
involved in functions including homeostasis, emotion, thirst, hunger, circadian rhythms, and control of the autonomic nervous system
Controls the pituitary.
amygdala
Located in the temporal lobe
Involved in memory, emotion, and fear
Hippocampus
In basal medial part of the temporal lobe
This part of the brain is important for learning and memory (converting short term memory to more permanent memory)
Recalling spatial relationships in the world about us
Thalamus
All sensation except for the olfaction passes through the thalamus.
of those sensation only the pain and temperature sense is consciously perceived as the thalamus but pain cannot be localized
Large mass of gray matter deeply situated in the forebrain
Limbic system
hypothalamus
amygdala
hippocampus
thalamus