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180 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
name the primary lymphatic organs?
thymus and red bone marrow
what is the ability to ward off disease?
resistance
what is the lack of resistance?
susceptibility
what is the general defensive mechanism on a wide range of pathogens (disease producing mocrobes)?
nonspecific resistance
what is the ability to fight a specific pathogen?
specific resistance
what resistance is cell-mediated immunity?
specific
what resistance is antibody-mediated immunity?
specific
red bone marrow, thymus, spleen, lymph nodes are all organs involved in the what?
lymphatic system
there is a fluid called what in the lymphatic system?
lymph
what are the functions of the lymphatic system?
drainage, transport, facilitating imune response
lymphatic vessels move in what direction?
one
lymphatic capillaries have ____ endothelial cells and ____ filament
overlapping, anchoring
lymphatic capillaries combine to form what?
lymphatic vessels
(lymphatic capillaries) ___ is in the GI tract and contains ___
lacteals, chyle
what resemble veins with thin walls & more valves
lymphatic vessels
vessels unite to form lymph ___ & ___
trunks, ducts
lymph has what kind of pumps?
respiratory & muscular pumps (same as venous return)
what is the source of the formation of lymph?
fluid and proteins
what organs provide environment for stem cells to divide & mature into B and T lymphocytes?
primary lymphatic organs
what is the site where pre-T cells from red marrow mature?
thymus
what is the site where most immune responses occur?
secondary lymphatic organs and tissues
lymph nodes, spleen & lymphatic nodules are what kind of lymphatic organs?
secondary
what is the flow direction of lymph?
in one direction
(lymph nodes) afferent vessels go in what direction?
they lead in
(lymph nodes) efferent vessels go in what direction?
they exit
only what filters lymph?
nodes
what is a stroma?
support structure
what is the function of the capsule, trabeculae, and the reticular fibers?
support structures
the parenchyma contain the ___ and the ___?
cortex, medulla
(spleen) parenchyma consists of ____ & ____
white pulp, and red pulp
the cortex of the parenchyma contain ___cells, ___-___cells, and ____
dendrite, antigen presenting, macrophages
what in the parenchyma contains (stores) B cells & plasma cells?
medulla
the cortex of the thymus contain tightly packed ____ & ____
lymphocytes, marophages
the cortex of the thymus contains dendrite cells which function in what?
T-cell maturation
what in the thymus stores mature T-cells, epithelial cells, dendrite cells, and macrophages?
medulla
(spleen) the stroma consists of the ____, and ____
capsule, trabeculae
the white pulp in parenchyma are ____ & ____
lymphocytes and macrophages
removal of damaged/worn out RBCs,
storage of platelets,
production of blood cells in fetus,
are functions of the what?
spleen
what are concentrations of lymphatic tissue not surrounded by a capsule?
lymphatic nodules
what is in the ileum of the small intestines?
peyer's patches
what forms a ring at the top of the throat?
tonsils
adenoids, palatine, and lingual are three types of what?
tonsils
mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) is located in the where?
nose and throat
nonspecific resistance to disease is ____ protection, and lacks ____ responses
immediate, specific
nonspecific resistanses to disease have ____ & ____ barriers
mechanical and chemical
the epidermis, mucous membrane, cilia & mucous, and the washing action of the lacrimal apparatus is ____ protection
mechanical
sebum(inhibits growth of bacteria & fungus), perspiration, lysozymes(breakdown bacterial cells), gastric juices, and vaginal secretions are ____ protection
chemical
iterferons, complement proteins, and transferens are ____ proteins
antimicrobial
in the cortex of the parenchyma in the lymph nodes, B cells proliferate into ____-secreting plasma cells
antibody
what is produced by virally infected lymphocytes & macrophages?
interferons
natural killer cells attack cells displaying abnormal what?
MHC antigens
NK cells release ____ that perferate the membrane of the cell and cause cytolysis
perforins
what is apoptosis?
programmed cell death
nuetrophils and macrophages are two major types of what?
phagocytes
what kind of macrophages stand gaurd in specific tissues?
fixed
what kind of macrophage is in most tissue?
wandering
alveolar macrophages are fixed macrophages located in the where?
lungs
chemotaxis > adherence > ingestion > digestion & killing > exocytosis, are steps of what?
phagocytosis
damaged cells initiate what?
inflammation
histamine, kinins, prostaglandins, and leukotrienes contribute to ____ & increased ____ of vessels
vasodilation, permeability
vasodilation & increased permeability, phagocyte emigration, and tissue repair are the stages of what?
inflammation
what does cytokines mean?
cell divsion
what intensifies the effects of interferons, inhibits bacterial growth, and speeds up tissue repair?
fever
what is the bodies ability to defend itself against specific foreign material or organisms?
specific resistance or immunity
what is the ability to recognize self & nonself?
specificity
when a second encounter occurs with an antigen it produces an even more vigorous response, this is called what?
memory
once ___ & ___ & MHC-1 connect they're activated and they produce more KT that don't need HTs to be activated
KT & HT
antibodies circulate in the ___ and ___
lymph and blood
the first exposure to antigen response is steady and slow, this is called the ____ ___ response
primary immune
ventilation in and out of the lungs is called what?
pulmonary ventilation
the function of the respiratory system is what?
gas exchange
the nasal ____ has increased surface area to prevent dehydration in the nasal cavity
conchae
the ____ sinuses lighten the skull & resonate the voice
paranasal
(pharynx)
the nasopharynx is a passageway for ___ only
air
(pharynx)
the laryngopharynx is a common passageway for ___ & ___ and ends as the ______
food and air, esophagus
what stops food from going down the trachea?
epiglottis
the trachea splits into what?
bronchi
blood vessels, nerves & airways enter the lungs at the what?
hilus
the respiratory bronchioles are the _____ of the branches, and they supply air to the _____
smallest, lobules
the aveoli ____ surface area
increase
alveolar fluid reduces _____ ____
surface tension
the _____ ____ ia a combination of alveolar and capillary walls
respiratory membrane
deoxygenated blood arrives through the ____ ____ from the right ventricle
pulmonary trunk
air moves ___ the lung when pressure inside the lungs is less than the atmospheric pressure
into
as the size of a closed container decreases, pressure inside increases is the _____ law
boyle's
contraction of the diaphragm flattens the dome and ____ volume
increases
the _____ cavity is potential space between ribs and lungs
pleural
inhalation is the _____ process
active
alveolar pressure falls in (inhalation/exhalation)
inhalation
in the passive process of exhalation elastic _____
recoil
alveolar pressure increases in (inhalation/exhalation)
exhalation
the ____ of the lungs is the ease with which lungs and chest wall expand elasticity
compliance
each gas in a mixture of gases exerts its own pressure is _____ law
dalton's
the quality of a gas that will dissolve in a liquid depends upon the partial pressure of the gas and its solubility is _____ law
henry's
the ___ of ______ of gases depends upon the partial pressure of gases, surface area, diffusion distance, and solubility & molecular weight of gases
rate of diffusion
oxygen binds with hemoglobin to form ________
oxyhemoglobin
what is the tendensy for oxygen and hemoglobin to combine?
affinity
if pO2 increases affinity _____
increases
CO2 (lowers/raises) acidity
raises
as acidity increases, O2s affinity for Hb _____
decreases
the ____ effect is the relationship of acidity and affinity
bhor
pCO2 and acidity make affinity go (up/down)
down
as temperature increases affinity _____
decreases
as temperature increases, more __ is released
O2
CO2 combines with the ____ part of the Hb
globin
what is carbaminohemoglobin?
carbon and hemoglobin
carbon is transported in the blood as ______ ion
bicarbonate
the ______ ____ controls breathing
respiratory center
cytotoxic T cells secrete what?
perforin
antibodies combine with ___ on antigens that trigger its production
epitope
the ____ ____ response is much stronger than the primary (the 2nd exposure)
secondary immune
the exchange of gases(Co2 & O) between the lungs and the blood is ____ respiration
external
the skin, nasal bones, & cartilage in the external nasal structures are lined with what?
mucous membrane
_______ ciliated columnar epithelium with ____ cells line the nasal cavity and everywhere in the respiratory system
pseudostratified, goblet
the ____ is a passageway for food and air, a resonating chamber for speech production, and houses the tonsils
pharynx
(pharynx)
the oropharynx is a common passageway for ___ & ___
food and air
the larynx is made out of what?
cartilage
thyroid cartilage form the what?
adam's apple
the mucosa, submucosa, and hyaline cartilage are all layers of the what?
trachea
what cell has a required costimulation of HT cells and by cytokines?
cytotoxic T cells
antibodies combine with ___ on antigens that trigger its production
epitope
the immune system gets weaker with ___
age
the exchange of gases between the capillaries and the interstitial fluid(tissues) is ____ respiration
internal
what is recognized as foreign and provokes the immune response?
antigens
what are on the immune cells (antibodies)?
antigen receptors
what is the ability to carry out immune responses if stimulated?
immunocompetence
what cell secretes antibodies?
B cells
what is the measure of simularity?
histocompatibility
what is agglutination?
clumping of cells
T cells mature in where?
thymus
does B or T cells have a cell-mediated response?
T cells
are B cells or T cells a antibody-mediated response?
B cells
the __ ____ ___ is effective against bacteria
antibody-mediated response (B cells)
the __ ____ ___ is effective against fungi, viruses, parasites, cancer, and tissue transplants
cell-mediated response (T cells)
antigens are what?
chemical name tags
immunogenicity and reactivity are required characteristics to be considered an _____
antigen
what is immunogenicity?
the ability to provoke the immune response
what is the small portion of antigen that triggers the immune response?
epitope
what is the smaller substance that cannot trigger an immune response unless attached to a body protein? (second component)
hapton
what molecules are built into the cell membrane of all cells except red blood cells
MHC-1
is MHC-1 voluntary or involuntary?
voluntary
what markers are seen only on the membrane of antigen presenting cells (macrophages, B cells, thymus cells)?
MHC-2
is MHC-2 voluntary or involuntary?
involuntary
if cell is infected it is displayed in what?
MHC-1
helper T cells only see antigens if part of _____ molecules on surface of antigen presenting cell
MHC-2
cytotoxic T cells only see antigens if part of ____ molecules on surface of body cells
MHC-1
foreign antigen in body fluid is _______ by APC (antigen presenting cell)
phagocytized
what are the foreign antigens that are present in fluids outside of body cells?
exogenous antigens
what are foreign proteins that are produced within a body cell?
endogenous antigens
cell-mediated immunity begins with activation of ___ by a specific antigen
T cells
what cells function is to costimulate all other lymphocytes?
helper T cells
what cells job is also to costimulate?
cytokines
what is the rupture of a living cell in which the contents leak out?
cytolysis
___ __ are B cells that are now active
plasma cells
what cells in the presence of foreign antigens become activated in the lymph nodes, spleen, or peyer's patch?
B cells
neutralization, immobilization, agglutination, complement activation are ____ actions
antibody
pulmonary, external, internal, and cellular are types of what?
respiration
the use of O and the production of Co2 is ____ respiration
cellular
what do goblet cells do?
secrete mucous
the nasopharynx, oropharynx, and the laryngopharynx are all distinct regions of the what?
pharynx
(pharynx)
the oropharynx is a common passageway for ___ & ___
food and air
where is the voicebox located?
the larynx
the trachea is covered in what kind if epithelia?
pseudostratified columnar
primary bronchus, secondary bronchus, tertiary bronchi, and bronchioles are what?
branch from the trachea, largest to smallest
the _____ ducts are surrounded by alveolar sacs & alveoli
alveolar
____ fluid keeps the alveoli wet
alveolar
the ____ in alveolar fluid relaxes surface tension so alveoli can expand
surfactant
what removes foreign substances before it causes infection in the lungs?
alveolar macrophages
_____ arteries branch off of the aorta to supply oxygenated blood to the lung tissue
brachial
air moves ___ of the lungs when pressure inside of the lungs is greater than the atmospheric pressure
out
______ __ requires muscular activity & chest size changes
beathing in
_____ ____ covers the lungs
visceral pleura
the ____ pleura lines the ribcage and covers the upper surface of the diaphragm
parietal
intrapleural pressure falls in (inhalation/exhalation)
inhalation
exhalation is the ____ process
passive
surface tension in alveoli pulls inward in (inhalation/exhalation)
exhalation
pressure difference, surface tension, compliance of the lungs, and airway resistance are factors affecting ___ ___
air flow
the ____ _____ is the resistance to airflow which depends upon airway size
airway resistance
_____ is more prevelent than O2 in air
nitrogen
oxygen _____ dissolve easily in water
does not