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190 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Point of Shoulder
Front of Elbow
Genital Region
Anterior of Knee
Pedal Tarsal

Pedal Digital

Fibular or Peroneal
Side of Leg
Big Toe
Back of Head or Base of Skull
Point of Shoulder
Spinal Column
Shoulder Blade
Dorsum or Dorsal
Back of Elbow
Between hips
Region between anus and external genitals
Back of Knee
Nervous system
Pleasure, pain , fight, flight
Hormones, response
Transport blood moves oxygen
Lymphatic System
Fight disease
Respiratory System
Oxgen in and Co2
Digestive System
Breaks down liptos
Uninary System
gets rid of toxins
Reproductive System
Keeps body in a constant
negative feedback
end result shuts the problem off back to homostasis
positive feedback
oxytocin contraction for childbirth
head superior to abdomen
the navel is inferior to the chin
towards the front
to the side
towards the middle
Closer to the organ
Farther from the organ
Toward or at the body surface
Away from the body surface
median plane
midsagitlal: runs up and down divides body right and left.
frontal plane
up and down divides body into back and front
transverse plane
runs horizontally into top and bottom
Dorsal Body Cavity
Protects nerveous system
Vital Signs
increaded Oxygen consumption and CO2 Production: increased RR and Heart rate
decreased Oxygen consumption and CO2 production
Heart Rate
Normal 60 -100 beats per minute and regular
>100 beats per minute
anxiety, fear exercies low blood pressure, fever, reduced O2 blood levels
< 60 beats per minute
medications, heart disease, atheletic The amount of oxygen delivered to the tissues is dependent on the ability of the heart to pump oxgenated blood. Compensation: increased rate
Blood Pressure
Force exerted against the walls of the arteries as the blood moves through the arterial vessels
Systolic 100-140
Diastolic 60-90
Systolic pressure
the peak force exterted when the left ventricle contracts
Diastolic pressure
is the force occuring when the heart is relaxed
perfusion of body organs may be significantly reduced: without circulation, oxygen delivery to the tissue is impaired and tissue hypoxia occurs
Respiratory Rate
12 -20
occurs as a result of exercise, atelectasis, fever, reduced blood oxygen, anxiety, pain
<12 head injuries or medications
Critically ILL Patient's with Hypoxema for example:
COPD with no known CO2 retention
Cystic Fibrosis
Interstitialpulmonary fibrosis
Postoperative patients with atelectasis
Cardiogenic pulmonary edema
PaO2 < 60mmHg PaO2 <50mmHg
SaO2 <90% SaO2 <85%
SpO2 < 95% SpO2 <90%
PaO2 < 60mmHg PaO2 <50mmHg
SaO2 <90% SaO2 <85%
SpO2 < 95% SpO2 <90%
Low Flow Cannula
2L/min 6L/min
Titrate Flowrate: or change
to high flow
PaO2>60mmHg PaO2>60mmHg
<90mmHg <90mmHg
SaO2 > 90% SaO2>90%
SpO2 >95% SpO2>95%
Reevaluate at least
QD Q8h
Emergency Situations
For example:
Carbon Monoxide Poisoning
Respiratory/ Cardiac Arrest
Severe Trauma
Decision is based on situation not lab values
100% NRB mask
Reevaluate at least Q8 hours
COPD with known CO2 retention and acute hypoxemia
Carbon dioxide retention is present when the PaCO2 > 50 with a compensated pH
PaO2<50-60mmHg with symtoms of hypoxemia
Low flow Cannula at 1-2 L/min
Titrate flow or change to high flow to:
PaO2 > 50 <60-70mmHg
SaO2 > 85% <90%
SpO2 > 88% <92%
Reevaluate at least QD
High Flow- Up to 50% Ventri Mask
What is H.influenza?
Haemophilus influenzae is a bacterial infection that if encapsulated causes epiglottitis. Nonencapsulated strains cause mind infections such as sinusitus. The Haemophilus influenzae type B (Hivb vaccine)Ampencillin useless.Exists only in humans.
What is S. pyrogenes?
Streptococcus pyogenes (also called group A beta-hemolytic streptococcus) is a highly virulent bacterial infection. It causes many clinical syndromes, including streptococcal pharyngitis(strep throat) Complications include scarlet fever and toxic shock-like syndrome (TSLS)Rheumatic fever can develop after the streptococcal infection is over.Humans are the only natural reservoir
What is C. diphtheriae?
Corynebacterium diphtheriae is a noninvasive bacterial infection , but it infects the mucous membranes of the pharynx and produces diphtheria toxin, which causes all the symptoms of diphtheria. The throat swells and becomes covered with a grayish pseudomembrane of dead cells. Treatment is with diphtheria antitoxin , produced artificially in horses. Infants can be immunized as part of the diphtheria, tetanus, pertussin (DTP)vaccine.Can infect skin.
What is Rhinovirus and Coronavirus?
Rhinoviruses cause the clinical syndrome of a cold or upper respiratory infection (URI) Their only reservoir is human beings. Transmission is usually by direct contact or fomites. Transmission can be interupted by hand washing. Recovery depends upon the immune system: antibiotics are useless. The common cold is also caused by other viruses, primarily coronaviruses.
What is M. Pneumoniae?
Mycoplasma pneumoniae is a bacerial infection that causes a mild pneumonia:gradual onset, few definite signs and symptoms, a patchy x-ray pattern. It is called a typical pneumonia. Treatment is with tetracycline. It is wall-less so not sensitive to penicillins.
What is infectious glomerulonephritis?
It is a poststreptococcal glomerulonephritis which causes sudden kidney failure this is a misdirected immune response triggered by the infection.
What is Pneumococcal pneumonia?
Pneumococcal pneumonia is a serious ,life threatening disease caused by streptococcus pneumoniae. It is a gram-positive with cells occuring in pairs , and lancet shaped diplococci.Humans are the sole reservoir. People without a spleen are highly vulnerable to pneumococcal sepsis, a life-threatening condition caused by multiplication of pneumococci in the blood.
What is quellung reaction?
Type-specific anti body that causes their capsule to swell.
What is C. psittacosis?
A bacterial infection causing chlamydial pneumonia. Life threatening. Chlamydiae can't generate their own ATP , they are obligate intracellular parasites. C.psittacosis infects all types of birds.If humans inhale dust from bird droppings they develop pneumonia.Disease is called ornithosis or psittacosis parrot fever.
What is Q fever?
Q fever is an atypical pneumonia caused by the bacterium Coxiella burnetii. A member of the rickettsia family of small intracellular parasites. Requires both a insect and a vertebrate host. Humans usually become infected by inhaling the microorganism from dried infected animal placentas, feces . Tetracycline is used.
What is L. pneumophila?
Legionella pneumophila causes legionellosis, a pneumoniia named for a virulent outbrak at an American Legion convention. It lives in water supplies and can be inhaled when aerosolized. The elderly, individuals with weakened immune systems, smokers, and alcholics are most susceptible.
What causes pertussis?
Bordetella pertussis causes pertussis (whooping cough) a highly contagious and often fatal childhood infection. The pertussis vaccine (whole cell) is criticized for its side effects and has been replaced by an acellular vaccine. The combination vaccine is DTaP
What causes TB?
Mycobacterium tuberculosis causes TB. It has unusual waxy cell walls that resist drying. Cells remain viable for 8 months. Primary infection produces tubercles or granulomas that become calcified in patients who overcome infection. Bacilli in old tubercles may escape to cause a secondary infection. The clinical syndrome includes fever, fatique, weight loss and chronic cough. Vaccine BCG, but not reliable. US uses skin testing.Leading killer of all infectious diseases.
What is influenza?
It is a virus whose structure makes it prone to minor genetic changes (antigenic drift) and radical changes (antigenic shift) In 1918 produced a strain that caused a pandemic.Vaccine availabel for high risk
What causes croup?
Some parainfluenza viruses cause the common cold. Parainfluenza type 1 is the most common cause of childhood croup.
What is RSV?
RSV is the most common cause of fatal lower respiratory infection in infants and children. transmitted hand contact and spreads quickly.
What is hantavirus?
A new hantavirus strain was identified as the cause of an outbreak of respiratory illness in the U.S. southwest. Attack the kidneys, fever, muscle aches and respiratory distress, and a death rate of 70% due to lung failure. People become infected by inhaling particles of the virus, which is shed by certain rodents.
What is histoplasmosis?
Histoplasmosis, caused by Histoplasma capsulatum, is the most common fungal respiratory disease. People become infected when they inhale spores where bat and bird droppings are plentiful. Only about 1% of infected people become ill (flulike)Ohio_Mississippi River valley.
What is Coccidioidomycosis?
A fungal infection caused by Coccicioides immitis also called San Joaquin Valley fever. Humans become infected when they inhale airborne arthrospores. Most people in endemic areas get a mild case at sometime, but a few develop a chronic infection similar to tuberculosis or a disseminated infection that can be fatal.
What is Balstomycosis?
Fungal infection caused by blastomyces dermatitidis . Humans and other animals become infected when they inhale conidia from infected soil. The clinical syndrome resembles tuberculosis, though the skin, bone, and testes may also be affected. Without treatment (amphotericin B) systemic blastomycosis is fatal.
What is Pneumocystis Pneumonia?
It's a life-threatening pneumonia in immunocompromised patients. Caused by pneumocystis carinii a fungus. It is found in the lungs of many human beings. Most common cause of death among people with AIDS.
What is the alimentary tract?
Tubelike structure that's about six times longe than a human being. Runs from mouth to anus. Consists of the oral cavity (mouth) pharynx(throat) , which is also part of the respiratory system; esophagus;stomach;small intestine;and large intestine.
What are the associated organs of the digestive system?
Teeth, tongue, salivary glands, liver, gallbladder, and pancreas. Together these organs consume food, digest it, absorb nutrients, and eliminate unabsorbed waste.
What is peristalsis?
Intestinal movement that propels food through the tract.
What is bile?
A biological detergent made by the liver that breaks up fat.
What happens to the food you eat?
In the mouth it's chewed and exposed to digestive enzymens in saliva , then it's swallowed into the pharynx, passes through the esophagus and empties into the stomach where enzymes, acid and strong mixing action reduces it into chyme. Chyme leaves the stomach to enter the duodenum (first part of small intestine) where enzymes from the pancreas and bile continue the digestive process. Finally in regions of the small intestine called the jejunum and the ileum , additional enzymes produced with in the intestinal lining complete the digestion. The indigestible components then pass into the large intestine or colon then stored in the rectum until they are eliminated through the anus.
What are some of the defenses of the digestive tract?
Epithelial cells, the muscular motions of chewing and peristalsis, and bactericidal chemicals as, hydrochloric acid, bile and secretory IgA.
What is gastritis?
Infection or inflammation of the stomach. Causes pain in the upper abdomen and occasionally bleeding.Helicobacter pylori colonization.
What is gastroenteritis?
Affects the stomach and intestine. Diarrhea and sometimes nausea, vomiting and crampy abdominal pain. Can be viral or bacterial or bacterial toxins produced outside the body and ingested in food.
What is colitis?
Primarily involves the colon. It is also called enterocolitis because the lower small intestine may be involved also. Dysentery. Typically damages teh intestinal wall. stools contain blood and mucus.
What else can colitis damage?
Dental caries(cavities)
Periodontal disease (crevices around the teeth can be attacked by anerobes that proliferate destruction of gum and bone tissue.
What are the parotids?
A pair of salivary glands located over the jaw just below the ear can be infected, producing parotitis (facial swelling) and Stomatitis where the inside of the mouth can become infected usually characterized by blisters or ulcers.
What is hepatitis?
Liver damage caused by infection, toxic chemicals, blockage of the bile drainage system, and hereditary disease. Patients with hepatitis become jaundiced (yellow.)
Where does Streptococus salivarius live?
On the tongue.
Where does Streptococus mutans and Streptococcus sanguis live ?
Attached to the teeth.
Where does Streptococcus mitior live?
On the inner surface of the cheek.
Where does Bacillus melaninogenicus live?
In the crevices between teeth and gums.
What are dental caries caused by?
Streptococcus mutans and eating sugar. S. mutans has adhesins on its plil that allow it to attach firmly to tooth enamel. Once attached to a tooth surface it is difficult to dislodge.
How is a person sesceptible to tooth decay?
Affected by when he or she acquired C. mutans.
Eating sugar and genetic factors and fluoride ion .
What is periodontal disease?
The leading cause of tooth loss.Bacterial infections. Periocontal disease begins when plaque accumulates in the channel between tooth and gums. Deep pockets form in the subgingival crevice.
the periodontal ligament and surrounding bone are damaged.
What is Shigella sp?
Shigellosis a bacterial infection , Gram -, diagnosed by stool samples, virulent, pattern of invasion , multiplication and toxins damage blood vessels in the intestinal wall and cause inflammation of the intestine.By the Shiga toxin, only found in human gut, fecal/oral transfer, infectious, self limiting, dehydration.More than 15% body loss is fatal
What is Salmonella?
Typhoid fever is a potentially fatal enteric fever caused by Salmonella typhi. It is Gram- characterized by rose spots, ill for a month and then recover. chronic gallbladder infection . 200 strains, characterized by O and H antigens, caused by food poisoning , from meat , milk , eggs. Spread by fecal/oral transmission.
What is E coli?
Esherichia coli is abundant in the large intestine of humans. JPathogenic strains of E. coli have virulence factors that nonpathogenic strains lack. They can adhere to human cells, invade human tissue, and produce toxins. They cause traveler's diarrhea and infant diarrhea in developing countries. They contain plasmids that encode enterotoxins that cause diarrhea. One heat labile toxin is destroyed by heat. The other heat stable toxin is not. One enterohemorrhagic strain of E. coli, O157;H7 , the cause of an epidemic of serious disease in Washington State cause bloody diarrhea and Hemolytic-uremic syndrome (HUS) severe anemia and kidney failure in children. The deadly consequences of E. coli O157:H7 come from the shigalike toxin called Vero toxin. Prevention-Avoiding contaminated food.
What is Vibrio cholera?
Cholera is caused by Bibrio cholera . Humans are its major reservoir , but it persists and multiplies in fresh water supplies and in sea water. Most cases occur wher public sanitation is inadequate, but infected shellfish are also a significant source of infection.It stimulates epithelial cells to secrete large quantities of chloride ion into the intestine.
This causes diarrhea. Stools resemble rice water stools. Lethal effect is dehydration. Oral rehydration therapy (ORT) contain glucose and sodium which allow fluids to be absorbed in the large intestine more rapidly than enterotoxin causes them to be secreted by the small intestine. Cholera patients should also receive tetracycline to stop Vibrio cholerae from myltiplying in the intestine.
What is Vibro parahaemolyticus?
Vibrio parahaemolyticus gastroenteritis can be a mild , self=limited diarrhea or an explosive cholelike illness. This salt requiring Gram- rod lives in coastal waters around the world. Common cause of illness among people who eat fish from contaminated waters. Dapan fish is often eaten raw.
What is Yersinia enterocolitica?
Yersinia enterocalitica is a gram - bacterium. Same genus as the bacterium that causes plague. It has a number of virulence factors: It can adhere to the intestinal epithelium, invade cells and produce an enterotoxin. Grows best at room temperature and continues to multiply at refigerator temperatures. More common in cold climates.Infection can come from wild or domestic animals, raw milk, oysters and water.
What is Campylobacter jejuni?
Campylobacteriosis is characterized by frequent episodes of bloody diarrhea, abdominal pain, and sometimes fever. Unusually high incubaton temperatures and selective media. Diarrhaeas. Erythromycin or tetracycline.
What is Helicobacter pylori?
Peptic ulcer disease. Lives only in the stomach and duodenum of humans an extremly acid and hostile enviroments.
What is C. difficles?
Clostridium difficile is a toxin producing bacterium that causes one type of iatrogenic ( medically induced) diarrhea- the unintended result of antibiotic therapy. . C. difficle is a significant cause of nosocomial infecton. vancomycin treatment
What is S. aureus?
Usually brief and self limited. most commonly reported food poisoning in U.S.
What is B. cereus?
Bacillus cereus lives in soil, water, and the gastrointestinal tract of humans and animals so it finds its way into food. Two forms of this illness, The heat stable enterotoxin causes vomiting. (contaminated rice) the heat labile enterotoxin causes diarrhea by meat and veg.
What is C. perfringes?
Lives in the gastrointestinal tract of animals and humans and is common in fecus rich soils. It usually contaminates meat.Releases enterotoxin in the intestinal tract causing diarrhea.
What is C. botulinum?
Clostridium botulinum causes a food borne intoxication, the result of a neurotoxin rather than an enterotoxin. botulism, the disease it causes, primarily affects the nervous system
What is Rotavirus?
Totavirus gastroenteritis damages the epithelial cells of the intestinal wall. The seriousness of the disease depends upon how much fluid is loss. Transmitted by fecal oral route. Rehydration.
What are Norwalk Agent?
Small viruses classified as calcilike agents because they resemble the calcivirus family of animal pathogens. Fecal oral route, older children and adults.
What is E. histolytica?
Entamoeba histolytica is a protozoal infection , an amoeba normally found in the intestines. Where sanitation is poor, it can cause amoebic dysentery (bloody mucoid stools, fever and abdominal pain) and amebiasis ( the parasites enter the bloodstream and can cause fatal liver abscesses. E. histolytica exists as a motile trophozoite and as a cyst, which is passed in the feces. Treatment is whit metronidazole in combination with iodoquinol.
What is G. lamblia?
Giardia lamblia is a flagellated protozoan, causes giardiasis, which begins with explosive diarrhea and copious amounts of foul-smelling intestinal gas. The first few days are followed by a week or more of abdominal pain, nausea, and occasional diarrhea. G. lamblia has a sylvatic cycle, putting campers at specila risk. It is most often in children. Treatment is with metronidazole or quinacrine.
What is B. coli?
Balantidium coli is a ciliate protozoan that causes balantidiasis, most often seen in tropical countries. Infected individuals may have long symptom-free periods. Other carriers may be entirely healthy. Diarrhea with blood and pus, abdominal pain, loss of appetite. Fecal oral route.(Metronidazole or tetracycline is effective.
What is Crytosporidium?
Cryptosporidium is a protozoan that causes cryptosporidiosis, normally a mild enterocolitis. It has caused recent epidemics in the U.S. AIDS patients and other immunocompromised individuals can develop life threatening diarrhea that lasts for months. Treatment is limited to rehydration.
What is Pinworm?
Enterobius vermicularis is anematode that cause the most common helminthic infection in the U.S. Infecton comes from ingesting pinworm eggs, which can survive for up to a week on fomites. Children are most commonly infected, though adults who handle children are at risk. Perianal itching is the primary symptom. Treatment is with pyrantel pamoate or mebendazole.
What is the genitourinary system?
The genital(reproductive) and urinary(excretion of metabolic wastes. )make up the genitourinary system. The genitourinary system is the only organ system that differs significantly in males and females. In females the reproductive and urinary tracts are completly separate. In males they begin separate and then join. .
What are the organs that are similar in males and females and what are the ones that differ?
Blood flowing into a kidney enters a cluster of blood vessels called the glomerulus. There the blood is filtered through a porous membrane under high pressure. The processed product of the tubules is urine. It leaves the kidney through a tube called a ureter. The kidneys and their ureters contitute the upper urinary tract. The ureters transport the urine to the bladder, the saclike container where urine is stored. It leaves the body through a tube called the urethra. Here males and females differ. The urethra of a female is only a few centimeters long. And it transports only urine. The male urethra is longer. It leads to the head of the penis and transports semen in addition to urine. The bladder and urethra are the lower urinary tract.
What does the male reproductive system include?
The testes, the urethra (part of both the urinary and reproductive systems because it transports urine and semen) and a series of ducts and glands, including the prostate gland.
What does the female reproductive system include?
The ovaries, the fallopian tubes, the uterus, and the vagina.
What is Cystitis?
Infection of the bladder.
What is urethritis?
Inflammation of the urethra, which causes frequent and painful urination.
What is pyelonephritis?
Infection of the kidneys is associated with fever and flank pain, as well as urethral symptoms.
What is a UTI?
Urinary track infection, could be infection of the urethra, kidneys or bladder.
What is vaginitis?
Infection of the vagina which is characterized by vaginal irritation and discharge.
What is endometritis?
Infection of the lining of the uterus.
What is salpingitis?
Infection of the fallopian tubes.
What is oophoritis?
Infection of the ovaries.
What is PID?
When the uterus, fallopian tubes, ovaries, and abdominal cavity itself are infected (Pelvic inflammatory disease)
What is E coli ?
Escherichia coli is the most common cause of UTIs.Virulence factors include adherence by pili.
What is leukocyte esterase?
An enzyme from white blood cells along with large numbers of bacteria and red blood cells and nitrites produce a urine test that is positive for a UTI
What other bacteria cause UTI?
Species belonging to the Proteus and Klebsiella because proteus and klebsiella form ammonia from urea, and make the urine alkaline (kidney stones)
What is Leptospirosis?
Leptospirosis is caused by Leptospira interrogans , a member of the spirochete family. It usually enters humans through mucous membranes or a break in the skin , it enters the bloodstream and goes to the kidney and multiplies there.Diagnosis is difficult. Usually people suffer only minor flulike symptoms , but can also be life threatening liver and kidney disease. Swim or wade in infected water.Penicillin, tetracycline.
What is Neisseria gonorrhoeae?
Causes gonorrhea. Is transmitted only by direct contact. ( most common STD in U.S.) Virulence factors include adhesin bearing pili, Protein II , and endotoxin. The pathogen is fragile, easily killed by drying or exposure to sunlight. Culturing is no longer necessary to diagnose using DNA probes is now quicker, cheaper and done on a urine specimen. Finding Gram- diplococci in a urethral discharge is sufficient to diagnose in males.Gonorrhea only infects humans Infection usually begins in the lower genital tract-urethra in males and cervix in women. Painful urination and a discharge of pus from the urethra, women may or maynot experience symptoms , but can spread the disease to new partners or her unborn child. Women can develop PID and infertility.Treatment was penicillins but now new resistant stains emerging.
What is Treponema pallidum?
Syphilis which is a highly motile spirochete.It is difficult to culture and found only in humans. Treatment Penicillin
What are the stages of Syphilis?
1.Primary , 2 to 3 weeks, chancre (weepy ulcer with raised borders) appears at the site of entry.
2.Secondary syphilis 8 to 11 weeks, Skin rash, fatique, fever, enlarged lymph nodes, contact with them can spread syphilis.3.Latent syphilis after secondary, can last for years need a positive serlogical test and the ability to infect others.
4.Tertiary syphilis 5 to 40 yrs. neurological symptoms, blood vessed damage, death.
What is Chlamydia trachomatis?
The most preventable STD in the world called chlamydia. Leading cause of female infertility and ectopic pregnancy ( pregnancy develops in fallopian tube) Women transfer chlamydia to their infants. causing eye infections and pneumonia. Difficult to diagnose. Cured with doxycycline or erythromycin.
What is Lymphogranuloma venerum?
Caused by chlamydia trachomatis is rare produces a small sore on the gentals , fever and headache , lesion heals without treatment but then lymph nodes may become draining ulcers. Treatment with doxycycline or erythromycin
What is Ureaplasma urealyticum and Mycoplasm hominis?
Nongonococcal urethritis caused by these .
These mycoplasmas are common residents of the urethra or vagina of sexually active men and women. More than half of all people with five or more lifetime partners are colonized by this bacteria. Urethral discharge in men . Treatment doxycycline.
What is haemophilus ducreyi?
Chancroid, This bacterium enters body through mucous membranes or breaks in skin. First sign of chancroid is a soft chancre (weepy ulcer) on the genitals that resembles the chancre of syphilis but is softer and can be quite painful.Closely linked to crack cocaine epidemic.
What is Granuloma inguinale?
Caused by Calymmatobacterium granulomatis, a gram-rod. It infects the skin and mucous membranes of the genital organs. Diagnosis is made on the basis of characteristic intracellular inclusions called Donovan bodies that are visible under a light microscope in scrapings from the ulcers. Ampicillin, tetracycline and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxaxole. Occurs in Asia, Africa and South America.
What is Herpes?
Herpes simplex virus (HSV) is by far the most prevalent sexually transmitted viral pathogen in industrialized countries. They can predispose a person to cancer. Unlike bacterial STDs Viral STDs are not curable.HSV is a DNA virus , it inhibits its host cell's metabolism and degrades its DNA, the cell dies. It has a active phase and a latent phase.In the latent phase the infected nerve cell does not die. When the virus is reactivated, it attacks the skin or mucous membrane that the nerve supplies. Most distinctive features of HSV infection is it's tendency to recur at the same site again and again. Causes a painful rash of tiny fluid filled vesicles. fever, headache, and muscle aches. Latent infection usually just rash.
What are the two types of Herpes?
HSV-1 typically infects the mouth and face. HSV-2 typically infects the genital tract. But the reverse can occur.Acyclovir and another antiviral agents , vidarabine help but cannot cure.
What is neonatal herpes?
Neonatal herpes is a devastating disease. It spreads to the brain and other internal organs of the newborns. Most babies that don't die suffer serious lifelong disabilities, blindness, deafness and profound retardation. Babies can be infected after birth by close contact with infected adults, but most aare infected during passage through the birth canal.Delivery by cesarean section prevents thes infections, but most women are unaware of the infection.
What is HPV?
Genital warts are transmitted during sexual contact or during passage through the birth canel. They appear on the skin or mucous membranes of the external genitalia.They are caused by the human papillomavirus (HPV) a DNA virus of the papovavirus family. 50 different strains, vaccine now available to prevent not cure. Many infections are asymptomatic. The association between HPV and cervical cancer is high.Condoms are effective.Yearly pap smears to detect early cervical cancer.
What is Gardnerella vaginitis?
Gardnerella vaginitis is caused by Gardnerella vaginalis , a motile, Gram+ bacterium. It is present in vaginal secretions of u[ to 40% of sexually active, asymptomatic women. ir it proliferates, so do large numbers of anaerobic bacteria. The population of lactobacilli decreases and the pH of the vagina becomes abnormally high. Called bacterial vaginitis causes a fishy smelling vaginal discharge. Treatment Metronidazole
What is toxic shock syndrome?
A lide threatening infection caused by strains of Staphylococcus aureus that produce toxic shock syndrome associated toxin (TSST) Most at risk are menstruation women using vaginal tampons, few cases today.Nafcillin or other penicilinase resistant penicillim aggressive supportive care.
What is PID?
Pelvic inflammatory disease occurs when bacteria from the vagina travel up to infect the uterus, fallopian tubes, and ovaries. Pathogens include Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, and Mycoplasma hominis. Diagnosis is by cervical culture, but treatment must begin immediately with ceftrazone and oral tetracycline.
What is endometritis?
Bacterial contamination of uterus after childbirth or abortion. Causing uterine tenderness, fever, life threatening bloodborne infection. Can be caused by Esherichia coli, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, chlamydia trachomatis, Clostridium spp. anaerobic streptococci, group B streptococci. Treatment cephalosporin
What is the major fungal cause of vaginitis?
Candida albicans, an opportunistic pathogen. Thick white vaginal discharge and severe vaginal itching. A hormonal imbalance and antibiotic therapy put a woman at risk.Treat with nystatin, terconazole.
What is Trichomoniasis?
Trichomonas vaginalis is a protozoan that causes trichomoniasis. It may be asymptomatic or characterized by a painful vaginitis and copious, frothy discharge. In males, treatment is asymptomatic. Treatment is metronidazole.
What is the classical male reproductive tract infection?
Neisseria gonorrhoeae and characterized by a copious , purulent urethral discharge.
What pathogens cause nongonococcal urethritis?
Most common is Chlamydia trachomatis 30 to 50%. Next is Ureplasma urealyticum causing 20 to 30%.
What is Listeriosis?
Caused by listeria monocytogenes , it takes many forms like, Meningitis, sepeicemia and endocarditis. It is an opportunistic pathogen. Pregnant women are at increased risk. They cross the placenta to infect the fetus, or they can infect the newborn when membranes rupture during delivery. Fetal infections often caus abortion or stillbirth. Babies with listeriosis can suffer from widespread abscesses, meningitis, or septicemis and many die even with early treatment.
What is Group B Streptococcal infection?
Group B streptococci are commonly found in throat, gastrointestinal tract and vagina of adults and in reproductive tract. Babies are infected when fetal membranrs rupture during delivery. Pneumonia, meningitis, and sepsis are the most common consequences.Also infects new mothers postpartum endometritis and second most common cause of systemic infection following cesarean section. May be protected by ampicillin intravenously during labor and delivery.
What is CMV?
Cytomegalic Inclusion Disease, (CMV) a member of the herpesvirus group, extremely common cause of human infecton around the world.Like other herpes viruses it establishes a latent infection that can be reactivated.CMV is transmitted sexually, by close contact (exchanging saliva) and in blood. Infection is usually asymptomatic, but if first infection occurs during pregnancy, it can cause abortion , stillbirth, or birth defects. Handicapped and asymptomatic children shed the virus for years, infecting adult caretakers and other children. Blood bank blood can contain CMV.