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57 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What characterizes an animal? (5)
1. animals are multicellular organisms that develop from embryos
2. all animals are eukaryotes and most reproduce sexually
3. animals never display alternation of generations
4. nearly all animals are heterotrophic
5. almost all animals contain many different kids of specialized cells
Define tissue:
groups of similar cells
Name different examples of tissues:
connective tissue
Define organ:
Two or more kinds of tissues; structural unit with a distinctive function
What is a zoologist?
A biolgist that studies animals
How many different phyla can animals be divided into?
List the two subkingdoms of animals:
1. Eumetazoa
2. Parazoa
Define: Eumetazoa
Includes most of the 45 billion names species of living animals
Define: Parazoa
includes 5,000 species of sponges
How are Eumetazoa divided into phyla?
Based on the way their embroys develop
Eumetazoa: state what happens after fertilization
After fertilization, a zygote divides via mitosis to produce a hollow ball of cells called a BLASTULA
When a blastula begins to fold in on itself, what is that called?
List the three layers that occur from the cavity that is created from the blastopore:
1. Endoderm
2. Mesoderm
3. Ectoderm
Define: Endoderm
innermost layer, gives rise to the intestines and other digestive organs
Define: ectoderm
the outermost layer, gives rise to the skin, sense organs and nervous tissue
Define: mesoderm
Middle layer, gives rise to the muscle and connective tissue
Eumetazoans are subdivided into which groups?
What Eumetazoan subdivision are humans found in?
Name the two groups that the Coelomates are divided into
1. Protosomes
2. Dueterostromes
Define: protosome
Mouth develops from the blastopore and are the most common
Define: dueterostromes
anus develops from the blastopore
Define: amphibian
Terrestrial animals that begin their lives in the water
List the three orders of the phyla: Amphibia
1. Urdoela
2. Anura
3. Caecilians
What are Urodela
List the several problems vertebrates had to solve in order to colonize the land
1. need to obtain and conserve water
2. need to extract oxygen from air rather than water
3. need strong skeletons
4. control fluctuations in body temperature
5. still need a watery environment for fertilization and early development
6. lungs and limbs
What are Anura
Frogs and toads
What are Caecilians
tropical, subterranean and lack feet; resemble earthworms
True or false: amphibians can gulp air and absorb oxygen through their skin
True or false: Amphibians both drink water and absorb it through their skin
False: do not drink water
State the amphibian life cycle (2 stages)
1. Aquatic
2. Terrestrial
Where is the fertilized egg (amphibian) laid?
In water where is develops into aquatic larva or tadpole
The tadpole becomes __________ in a process called__________
1. Terrestrial
2. Metamorphosis
How many species of reptiles are there?
List the three orders of reptiles
1. Crocodilia
2. chelonia
3. squamata
What are crocodilia?
Crocodiles and aligators
What are chelonia?
Turtles and tortoises
What are squamata?
True or false: reptiles are the first vertebrates to be able to live both in and out of the water
False: first to have freed themselves of life in water
Describe the reptilian skin:
Dry, watertight skin to help conserve water
True or false: reptiles have both lungs and gills
False: they rely entirely on their lungs
Define: cloaca
Common opening shared by the digestive, urinary and reproduction features
Reptiles developed the amniotic egg with the following components:
1. a porus shell that allows gas exchange with the outside
2. outer membrane
3. amnion-membrane that encloses the developing embryo
Define chorion
the outer membrane of the amniotic egg
What is a yolk?
Rich food supply for the developing embryo
True or false: all reptiles and their descendents have amniotic eggs?
Define ectotherms:
Reptiles are ectotherms and depend on external sources of heat for body temperature regulation
Define endotherms:
Mammals and birds, maintain their body temp by capturing heat released by their metabolism and releasing heat from their bodies
Name three features of birds that distinguish them from reptiles
1. feathers
2. Flight
3. Endothermic
True or false: bird fertilization occurs in the nest
False: internally
Name other adaptations that lightened the bird's body for flight:
1. loss of teeth
2. hollowing of bones
3. reshaping of the breastbone to accomodate larger muscles
List two aspects that distinguish mammals
1. take their name from having mammary glands
2. mammals have hair and two sets of teeth
True or false: most mammals are Eutherians
What are placental mammals called?
Briefly describe the reproductive process of marsupials:
Produce newborns, undeveloped fetuses, pulls along the mother's fur until it finds a nipple, fetus latches on until its developed
Define Metatherian
What is a Prototherian?
1. lay eggs similar to reptiles and birds
2. digestive and reproductive systems open up into a cloaca
3. platypus and spiny anteater
What are monotremes?
Are prototherians, and include the platypus and spiny anteater