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108 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
mitotic cell division of zygotes
hollow ball fromed by zygote
creates layers of tissue that will give rise to adult features
opening of gastrula
fluid filled cavity of blastula
pouch formed by gastrulation, the developing digestive tube
no true tissue, asymmetrical

true tissues, all animal phyla but sponges, embryo layered by gastrulation, layers eventually form tissue and organs
outer germ layer of embryo, gives rise to animal's covering and possibly the CNS
innermost germ layer, lines the developing digestive tube (the archenteron), gives rise to the lining of the digestive tract/cavity and the organs within it, such as the liver and lungs
radial symmetry
able to meet environment equally well from all sides, phyla Cnidaria
two germ layers: ectoderm and endoderm
bilateral symmetry
has dorsal, ventral, anterior, and posterior sides/ends
trend toward collecting sensory equipment on the anterior end
in addition to endoderm and ectoderm, has a third layer: mesoderm, which forms muscles and other ograns between the digestive tube and the outer covering
a body cavity, fluid-filled space separating the digestive tract from the outer body wall, triploblastic animals possess
triploblastic with solid bodies: no cavity between the digestive tract and outer covering
has body cavity that is not completely lined by tissue derived from the mesoderm
has true coelom: cavity completely lined by tissue from the mesoderm
importance of body cavity
cushions suspended organs, some contain incompressible fluid that acts as a skeleton for muscles, enables internal organs to grow and move independently from outer body wall
spiral and determinate cleavage, mesoderm splits to form coelomic cavities (schizocoelous), blastospore becomes mouth
radial and indeterminate cleavage, mesoderm buds from archenteron and hollows out (enterocoelous), blastospore becomes anus
phylum porifera (sponges)
sessile, hermaphroditic, need to know spongocoel, osculum, choanocytes, mesohyl and amoebocytes, no true tissue
central cavity of sponge
opening where water flows out of spongocoel
collar cells, have flagella that generate a water current, trap food particles, ingest by phagocytosis
gelationus region that separates the two layers of cells that make up the body of the sponge
have pseudopodia, take up food from water and the choanocytes, digest it, carry nutrients to other cells, manufacture tough skeletal fibers within the mesohyl
phylum cnidaria
diploblastic, hydras, jellies, anemones, corals, have gastrovascular cavity, cnidocytes, nematocysts, hydrostatic skeleton, and nerve net, can be polyps or medusas
gastrovascular cavity
a central digestive compartment
unique cells that function in defense and capture of prey in cnidarians' tentacles
stinging capsules, type of cnidae, organelles that give Cnidarians their name
nerve net
Cnidarians nervous system, noncentralized, simple sensory structures that are radially distributed, so can detect and respond to stimuli equally from all directions
Cnidarian body plan, cylindrical forms that adhere to substrate by the end opposite the mouth, extended tentacles wait for prey, ex. hydras, se anemones
cnidarian body plan, flattend version of polyp, moves freely in water, alternates between drifting and contracting body, ex. jellies
cnidaria classes
hydrozoa, scyphozoa, cubozoa, and anthozoa
cnidaria: hydras, some corals

mostly marine, both polyp and medsa, colonial polyps
cnidaria: jellies, sea nettles

marine, reduced polyp state, free swimming
cnidaria: box jellies, sea wasps

marine, box shaped medusa, complex eyes
cnidaria: sea anemones, most corals, sea fans

marine, no medusa stage, mostly sessile and colonial
phylum platyhelminthes (flatworms)
triploblastic, acoelomates, marine

classes: turbellaria, cestoda, monogenea, trematoda
class turbellaria
planarians: eyspots, pharynx, ventral nerve cords, ganglia
class cestoda
tapeworms: scolex (anterior end with suckers and hooks) and proglottids (sacs of sex organs)
phylum rotifera
pseudocoelomates, complete digestive tract, and parthenogenesis
females produce more females from unfertilized eggs
phylum mollusca
soft-bodied, some with protective calcium carbonate shell, have foot, visceral mass, mantle, and radula
muscular, used by molluscs for movement
visceral mass
contains most of the internal organs in molluscs
a fold of tissue that drapes over the visceral mass nd secretes a shell in molluscs
organ in molluscs used to scrape up food
phylum mollusca classes
polyplacophora, gastropoda, bivalvia, cepalopoda
phylum annelida
segmented worms, coelom is separated by septa, closed circulatory system, blood with hemoglobin, cerebral ganglia and nerve cords, hermaphrodites that cross-fertilize
phylum annelida classes
oligochaeta, polychaeta, hirudinea
phylum nematoda
roundworms, cuticle (exoskeleton) is periodically shed, complete digestive tract, NOT segmented, pseudocoelom, no circulatory system, Trichinella spiralis: causes trichinosis in humans, get by eating undercooked meat
phylum arthropoda
segmented, hard exoskeleton, jointed apendages

exoskeleton: chitin and protein, protection and points of attachment for muscles (have no bones), waterproof and strong

molting (ecdysis) for growth, vulnerable to predators

well-developed sensory organs with extensive cephalization

open circulatory system, hemolymph is pushed into sinuses by a heart
phylum arthropoda lineages
trilobites (extinct), chelicerates (class arachnida), uniramians (classes insecta, diplopoda, and chilopoda), and crustaceans (class crustacea)
lineage of arthropods, class arachnida: horseshoe crabs, scorpions, ticks, spiders, have chelicerae: clawlike feeding appendages, no atennae, and simple eyes
lineage of arthropods, classes insecta, diplopoda, and chilopoda: centipedes millipedes, and insects, have mandibles, one pair of antennae, and unbranched appendages
lineage of arthropods, class crusacea: crabs, lobsters, shrimp, have mandibles, two pairs of antennae, and branced appendages
spiders and other chelicerates
cephalothorax and abdomen, chelicerae: feeding appendages which serve as pincers or fangs

arachnids: six pairs of appendages
1. chelicerae (fanglike with poison)
2. pedipalps (sensing or feeding)
3-6. walking legs
spiders put digestive juices on prety to soften the food, then suck up the remains
gas exchange by book lungs
book lungs
stacked plates contained in an internal chamber, the extensive surface area of these respiratory organs is a structural adaptation that enhances the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide between the hemolymph and air in spiders
vegetarians, two pairs of legs per segment
carnivores, one pair of legs per segment
wings are extensions of the cuticle, not appendages
malpighian tubules: remove metabolic waste from hemolymph
tracheal system brings oxygen to cells, opens to the outside by spiracles, cerebral brain with two ventral nerve cords, either incomplete or complete metamorphosis
pores that can control air flow and water loss by opening or closing (found in insects)
incomplete metamorphosis
the young (nymphs) resemble adults but are smaller, have different body proportions, and lack wings

series of molts make nymph look more and more like an adult
complete metamorphosis
have larval stages specialized for eating and growing, look completely different than adults, metamorphosis occurs during a pupal stage
two pairs of antenna, isopods, copepods, decapods
terrestrial, freshwater, and marine crustaceans
lobsters, crayfish, crabs, and shrimp
hardened calcium carbonate cuticle
planktonic crustaceans
phylum echinodermata
sessile or slow-moving, water vascular system, tube feet, larvae have bilateral symmetry, adults are radial
water vascular system
unique to echinodermata, network of hydraulic canals branching into extensions called TUBE FEET that function in locomotion, feeding, and gas exchange
phylum chordata
subphyla urochordata, cepalochordata, and vertebrata
chordates 4 characteristics
notoord; dorsal, hollow nerve cord; pharyngeal slits; muscular, post-anal tail
in all chordate embryos, flexible rod located between digestive tube and nerve cord, remnants in humans: gelatinous material in the discs between vertebrae
dorsal, hollow nerve cord
develops in to CNS (brain and spinal cord)
pharyngeal slits
posterior to the mouth
muscular, post-anal tail
can be used for locomotion
subphylum urochordata (tunicates)
incurrent siphon, atrium, excurrent siphon/atriopore, looks most like chordate when larva
subphylum cepalochordata (lancelets)
all four characteristics are present in adult
agnathans (jawless vertebrates)
hagfish: slimey, cartilaginous, no vertebrae

lampreys: lick through prey, no vertebrae, cartilaginous
subphylum vertebrata evolution
brain and cranium first, vertebral column second, jaws, boney skeleton and paired appendages later

jaws evolved from skeletal rods that supported the pharygeal gill slits
class chondrichtyes (cartilaginous fishes)
sharks, skates, and rays
oil in liver, will sink if stop swimming, gas exchange over gills, sharp vision (no colors), nostrils for smelling not breathing
lateral line system
can be oviparous, ovoviviparous, or viviparous
lateral line system
a row of microscopic organs sensitive to vibrations in the surrounding water
lay eggs that hatch outside the mother's body (chondrichthyans)
retain the fertilized eggs in the oviduct, hatch within the uterus (chondrichthyans)
young develop within the uterus and obtain nourishment prior to birth by receiving nutrients from the mother's blood througha yolk sac placenta (chondrichthyans)
osteichtyes (bony fishes)
bony scales, lateral lint, operculum, swim bladder, ray-finned fish (bass, trout), lobe-finned fishes and lung fishes: led to evolution of tetrapods
protective bony flap that covers gills
swim bladder
air sac that allows osteichthyans to control their buoyancy
class amphibia
orders urodela, anura, and apoda

many use moist skin for respiration, external fertilization of jelly-coated eggs in water
order urodela
order anura
frogs, many don't go through the tadpole/frog life style
order apoda
amniotic egg
allowed for animals to complete life cycle on land, extraembryonic membrances, foun din reptiles, birds, and mammals (no more shell)
extraembryonic membranes
membranes that develop from tissue layers that grow out from the embryo, function in gas exchange, waste storage, and transfer of stored nutrients to the embryo
class reptilia
scales of keratin (like our hair) to prevent dehydration, cannot breathe through skin, need lungs
shelled amniotic eggs on land, internal fertilization
types: testudines (turtles), sphenodontia (tuataras), squamata (lizards and snakes), and crocodila (alligators and crocodiles)
absorb heat rather than generate it internally, needs fewer calories than endotherms
testudines (turtles)
hard shell
squamata (lizards and snakes)
snakes have vestigial pelvic and limb bones, carnivores, sensitive to ground vibrations (no eardrums), acute sense of smell (tongue flicks odors into roof of mouth), and loose jaws
crocodilia (alligators and crocodiles)
most of the time in water, upturned nostrils
class aves (birds)
bones: honeycombed, light but strong
lightweight: absence of some organs (single ovary, no teeth, etc)
food "chewed" in gizzard
extremely efficient respiratory and circulatory systems
excellent eyes, internal fertilization, shelled egg kept warm by a parent
airfoil wings for flight, large breast muscles anchored to a keel on the sternum
feathers made of keratin
Archaeopteryx: bird ancestor
in birds, feathers and fat help retain heat
class mammalia
mammary glands that produce milk, hair made of keratin, endothermic: hair and fat help retain heat, efficeitn circulatory and respiratory systems suport high metabolic rate, larger brains, internal fertilization, different shaped teeth
types: monotremes, marsupials, eutherians
monotremes (platypus)
lay eggs
no nipples, glands on skin secrete milk
marsupials (kangaroo, koala)
born early in development, complete development while nursing inside marsupium (pouch)
eutherians (placentals)
longer pregnancy