Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key


Play button


Play button




Click to flip

78 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What is a naturalistic attitude?
-Primary interest and affection for wildlife and the outdoors
What is an ecologistic attitude?
-Primary concern for the environment as a system, for inter-relationships between wildlife species and natural habitats
What is a humanistic attitude?
-Primary interest and strong affection for individual animals; primarily pets
What is a moralistic attitude?
-Primary concern for the right and wrong treatment of animals with strong opposition to expoitation or cruelty towrds animals
What is a scientistic attitude?
-Primary interest in the physical attributes and biological functioning of animals
What is an aesthetic attitude?
-Primary interest in the artistic and symbolic characteristics of animals
What is a utilitarian attitude?
-Primary concern for the practical and material value of animals or the animal's habitat
What is a dominionistic attitude?
-Primary interest in teh mastery and control of animals, typically in sporting situations
What is the negativistic attitude?
-Primary orientation is an active avoidance of animals due to indifference, dislike, or fear
According to Kellert, what to attitudes are highest and at what ammounts?
According to Kellert what are the next two highest attitudes and what percentages do they have?
According to Kellert, what are the lowest attutides and their corresponding percentages?
-Aesthetic 15%
-Ecologistic 7%
-Dominionistic 3%
-Negativistic 2%
-Scientistic 1%
What was the least known information regarding 'animal knowledge'?
-Use of steel vs lead shot by waterfowl hunters
-Tennessee Valley authority/ tellico dam/ snail darter issue
What was the largest positive deviation according to Kellert for the knowledge scale?
-Graduate education (7.73)
-Alaska (4.86)
-Rocky Mtn Region (2.75)
-Gollege Education (2.36)
-Male (2.18)
What was the largest negative deviations according to Kellert for the knowledge scale?
-black (-5.50)
-<8th grade (-5.10)
-9-11th grade (-3.36)
-76+ years (-3.12)
-18-25 years (-2.30)
According to Kellert, what are the eight major variables effecting public attitudes toward endangered species management.
2) phylogenetic relatedness
3) reason for endangerment (direct: overharvest, indirect: habitat loss)
4) economic value of species
5) number and type of people affected by limits
6) knowledge of and familiarity with species
7) cultural/historical relationship
8) humaneness of harvesting procedure
When were bodily functions first studied?
-2300 BC
When and where did vet medicine concept fist exist?
-India in 1000 BC
Who observed animals (and when) which lead to zoology and comparitive anatomy?
-Aristotle in 384-322 BC
Who is the founder of medical physiology, when was this, and what did he study?
-284 BC
-Monkeys, pigs, and dogs
What works made important discoveries in 1600's and what where these things?
-work of Harvey, Wren, Boyle, and Hooke
-narcotics, anatomy, blood transfusions, and important components in air
Who founded the first SPCA and when?
-Lewis Gompertz in 1820 (in London)
Where was the first anti-cruelty act passed and when was this?
-New York in 1828
Who were Bernard and Magendie?
-Practised widely known, live animal experimentation in the 1800's
-Bernard would not use Monkeys
What did public and scientific objection lead to in 1876?
-1876 Cruelty to Animal Act in England
What are morals?
-pertain to the set of rules, principles and beliefs about right and wrong, good and bad, justice and injustice, et.
-the things taught at school and by parents, etc.
What are ethics?
-can be viewed as the study, critique and analysis of morals (a philosophical activity)
How do Western (Christianity, etc) and Eastern (buddhism, etc) religions differ in their beliefs of animal equality?
-Eastern: man is equal to others
-Western: man is dominant over animals and is a creation of God
What are the Native Americans philosophy of animals?
-waste/destroy nature was to destroy nature itself
-"Miracle" the white buffalo born in 1994, new era would unite all people of the earth
-Melody the red heifer born in 1997 signaling Messianic age for rebuilding of the Temple
-Bison herds and uses (50-80 million bison, now <2000)
What is the Buddhists philosophy of animals?
-most religious Buddhists are strict vegetarians
-believed that sould of people are reborn as animals
-Theravada Buddhism allows meat eating, as long as not killed by follower or for them
What is the Hindu philosophy of animals?
-hinduism allows for animal sacrifices
-cows and peacocks are sacred (protected with monkeys too)
-human sould can be roborn as animals and insects
-doctrine of non-violence and non-killing
-many castes allowed to eat sheep and goat meat, Brahmis are not
What is the Jain philosophy (inc. Ghandi) of animals?
-every organism endowed with a unique soul
-all souls interconnected
-vegetarians, only eat one-sense foods (fruit) and fasting
-animal husbandry= exploitation, no leather, meat, etc.
*a fly is a carrot is a pig is a dog
What is the Jewish (Orthodox) philosophy of animals?
-animals part of God's creation
-demands compassion and mercy
-animals can be eaten including cloven-hoofed who chew cud, fowl, fish with fins and scales
-birds of prey, insects and animals of the sea forbidden
-kosher slaughter method requires effusion of blood to tame man's instincts
What is the Christian philosophy of animals?
-early teachings stated that animals had no soul
-various biblical examples of man's dominion over animals, they were created for man
What is the Islam philosophy of animals?
-man has power over animals, but to treat animals badly is to disobey God's will
-animals to be killed out of necessity
-not acceptable to hunt for pleasure or to mistreat animals
-forbidden from eating birds of prey, blood, pigs, strangled animals, those gored to death, or sacrificed animals
-opinions on keeping of pets differs
What did Rene Descartes say about animals?
-proposed that animals were "machines" without feelings
-"there is no prejudice to which we are all mroe accustomed from our earliest years than the belief that dumb animals think
What was Jeremy Bentham's philosophy about animals?
-believed animals have pain and suffering
-"not can they talk, or can they reason, but can they suffer"
What was Ruth Harrisons opinion on animals?
-wrote Animal Machines: The New Factory Farming Industry
-this led to the Brambell report
-was an eye opener and whistle blower for agribusiness' trend to industrialized animal production
What was the "bible" of the animal rights movement and who wrote it?
-"animal liberation" by Peter Singer
-had philosophical public discussion of teh topic and gave "shocking" public awareness, particularly "factory farms"
What are the viewpoints for "utilitarian rights"?
-animals have interests
-suscribed to Bentham's view on suffering and pain
-compared animal rights issue to racism/sexism
-promoted vegetarianism
-advocates an animal can have greater rights than mentally retarded/infant humans
-if we reject racism/sexism we should reject speciesism
What was Carl Cohens reply to Singer's theory ("utilitarian rights")?
-animals can't have rightrs because they cant accept morals of society, and do not recognize rights of others
What was Tom Regans viewpoint of Singers theory?
-Because it seeks to maximize good, without pre-allocation
-Regan asserts that all individuals have right and a value
-No tolerance for using animals for any purpose
What are the meanings of Mind, Body, and Soul?
-Mind: pain, pleasure, suffering
-Body: health, disease, growth, reproduction
-Soul (Nature): natural conditions and behavior
What is the definition of health?
-the absence of disease symptoms
-the state of being bodily and mentally vigorous and free from disease
-WHO: A state of complete physical, mental and social well being and not only the absence of disease
According to Broom, what is welfare?
-the welfare of an individual is its state as regards its attpemempts to cope with its environment. This state includes how much it is habing to do to cope, the extent to which it is succeeding or failing to cope, and its associated feelings
What are the Pro's of physical measures of stress?
-known biological function
What are the Con's of physiological measures of stress?
-not necessarily fast turnaround
-sometimes hard to acquire
-increased levels don't necessarily indicate poor welfare
-most useful as repeated measure
Is an animal's production a good assessment for satisfactory welfare at teh body level? Why or why not?
-Not alone it isn't
-it doesn't take into account the "mental" or "nature" aspect
-often productivity is an exonomic measure
-can be assessed on a wide scale basos vs. an individual basis
Who talked about animal natures which are essential to their well-being as speech and assembly are to us?
-Bernard Rolling
What was the great quote the Astrid Lindgren said?
-Let the animals see the sun just once, get away from the murderous roar of the fans. Let them get to breathe freash air for once, instead of maure gas.
What are some reasons for varied concern for different species from our lecture?
-usefulness, convenience
-likeness to us
What are the five freedoms?
1) Freedom from hunger and thirst
2) Freedom from discomfort
3) Freedom from pain, injury, and disease
4) Freedom to express normal behavior
5) Freedom from fear and distress
What is Homeostasis?
-the process whereby the body maintains a relatively constant milieu of physiological factors
What are three things homeostasis maintains?
-fluid balance
-energy balance
-temp balance
Describe the path of response to a stimulus.
-physiological responses which leads to behavioral response
-both of those lead to ultimate factors (including homeostasis): factors that correspond to final aim of the bahevior such as keeping warm by nestbuilding
What is important about thermoregulation?
-it's critical to homeostasis
-handles excess energy
-homeothermy (core temp)
What are two types of heat exchange mechanisms?
-insensible (through evaporation)
What are the methods of sensible heat exchange mechanisms?
-radiation (black vs white)
-conduction (bare skin on hot bars)
-convection (wind chill, trapped air in fleece)
What 4 other factors affect thermoregulation?
-water intake
-time of day
What are the two methods of thermoregulation?
-long term anticipatory mechanisms (coat growth, shedding)
-metabolic rate
Once outside the thermoneutral zone, what are 8 things an animal does for active thermoregulation?
-curling up
-piloerection to trap air layer (combined with vasomotor control of blood flow to skin)
-countercurrent exchange
-sudomotor control of evaporative losses through sweating
-respiratory control of evaporative losses through panting
-involuntary shivering, efficient, fast twitch skeletal muscles
-vigorous limb movement, inefficient (blood flow to prevent tissue damage)
What are the 3 changes for acclimation to thermoregulation?
-initial acute response
-gradual additional changes (altered thermoneutral zone and piloerection, thivering, brown fat thermogenesis)
-increased appetite, intake, adiposity, and coat growth
What is stress?
-The excessive demand over the animal's adaptive abilities. IE: When it takes a much greater effort to offset and correct a change to return the parameter to within the comfort zone
What is the point of balance?
-in a fight or flight response, a handler can stand at a 90 degree angle to the cows shoulders to have the animal just stand there and not move
What are the two types of stressors?
What are the kinds of stress and what duration do they have?
-psychosocial (short)
-physical (long)
-physico-chemical (incidental)
-internal (regular)
What are some factors that influence stress responses?
-male vs female
-early experience
-period of exposure
-genetics (HAL gene)
What is the definition of zoology?
-any living organism characterized by voluntary movement, the possession of cells with noncellulose cell walls and specialized sense organs enabling rapid response to stimuli and the ingestion of complex organic substances such as plants and other animals
What animal was voted most likely to be protected?
Least likey?
-Eagle, only 8% said no
-fish at the expense of drinking water
What is the Animal Rights Movement?
-insists animals have moral rights equal to humans and opposes biomedical research using animals, animal sporting events, animals for clothing and entertainment, product testing or eating of animals
What is the Animal Welfare Movement?
-insists a reduced and minimal number of animals should be used in research, and that they should be treated as humanely as possible. Implies mankind has a power or right over animals, and has a responsibility for their well-being
What is vivisection?
-the act or practive of performing experiments on living animals, involving cutting into or dissecting the body
What is sentience?
-having the power of sense perception or sensation. AKA: awareness
What is the formula for welfare?
-mind x body x soul
What are a couple of possibilites that support the exsistance of feelings?
-preferences likely to indicate an animal's wants
-evidence for happiness (or more often, lack thereof)
How can behavior be a good way to consider "feelings"?
-screaming piglets, scratching dogs indicate pain, stress, etc
-abnormal behavior displays may indicate negative emotions
-relative sensitivity to adverse events, etc.
What is possibly the most developed state of the animals mind?
-self awareness or the ability to perceive oneself
-mirror test in chimps vs other primates, etc.
What do physiological measures help to find?
-can be used to consider "feelings" such as stress hormone levels, heart rate, etc indicate fear/fright