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17 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What are some functions of cell walls?
Responsible for cell shape. Prevention of cell rupture.
What are some characteristics of bacterial cells?
Cell Wall, no nucleus, no discrete organelles, .2-2microm diameter & 2-8 microm length
What are the 3 shapes of bacteria
Coccus (spherical), Bacillus (rods), Spiral
What are the 3 planes of growth called?
Diplococci (doublets), Streptococci (lines), Staphylococci (groups)
Describe the glycocalyx and list two of its functions
1. "Sugar coat"
2. Capsule
3. Sticky, gelatinous polymer made up of polysaccharides and polypeptides
Functions: protection and adsorption
List several objects inside the cell wall
1. Plasma (cytoplasmic) membrane for selective permeability
2. Cytoplasm (80% water)
3. Nuclear area (nucleoid)
What are ribosomes used for? Inclusion?
protein synthesis. Inclusion=reserve nutrient deposits
What are several ways to classify bacteria?
1. Gram stain
2. Shape
3. Arrangement
4. Mobility method
5. Atmospheric requirements
6. Biochemical reactions
7. Growth requirements
8. G/C ratio of nuclear material
List several ways of entry
1. normally present
2. Broken skin
3. Respiratory tract
4. Gastrointestinal tract
5. Urogenital tract
6. Conjunctiva/mucous membrane
What are some mechanisms of spread?
1. Physical contact
2. Air
3. Food and water
4. Insects
5. Fomites (inanimate objects)
What are 3 mechanisms of anti bacterial resistance
1. Species insusceptibility
2. Innate immune system
3. Acquired immune system
What are some methods of bacterial disease production?
1. Release of toxins
2. Release of destructive enzymes
3. Intracellular destruction
What is the difference b/w endo and exotoxins? Give examples of each
Exotoxin: produced in cell and secreted by the cell or released when host cell is destroyed (tetanus, botulism)
Endotoxin: Walls of Gram (-) bacteria only. Toxins are released only if the bacterial cell dies (salmonella)
Give 5 examples of destructive enzymes. What are they able to do.
Hyaluronidase, collagenas, elastase, protease, fibrinoytics. They can break down tissues and destroy antibodies.
What is intracellular destruction?
Due to expanding physical bulk (bacterial growth w/in the cell). Such bacteria are resistant to lysozymes (TB, brucellosis, listeriosis)
What are two tests done to test which antibiotic to use?
1. MIC (minimum inhibitory concentration): the lowest level of antibiotic that will kill bacteria
2. Kirby Bauer: multiple antibiotic sensitivity discs
What are some things to consider before prescribing the antibiotic?
1. Will drug distribute to the site of infection?
2 Will drug reach MIC levels in the patient?
3. Resistance status of the host
4. Toxicity
5. Compliance
6. Economics