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45 Cards in this Set

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Internal Fertilization
Fertilization that occurs inside the female
External Fertilization
Fertilization that occurs outside both the male and female. An example is frogs
Zygote
Diploid cell formed by the union of a sperm and an egg
Cleavage
Rapid series of cell divisions immeadiately following fertilization
Blastomeres
Cells that result from cleavage
Holoblastic Cleavage
the cleavage furrow passes completely through the cells
Blastocoel
Fluid filled cavity inside the blastula
Sexual reproduction
meiosis and gamete formation typically occur in two prospective parents
Asexual reproduction
single parent organism produces identical offspring by one of a variety of methods
Parthenogenesis
development of offspring from an unfertilized egg
Stages in animal development
1. Gamete formation
2. Fertilization
3. Cleavage
4. Gastrulation
5. Organ Formation
6. Growth Tissues
Gamete formation
stage in animal development where eggs or sperm develop in reproductive tissues and organs
Fertilization
Stage in animal development that begins when a sperm penetrates an egg and ends when a zygote is formed
Cleavage
Stage in animal development where mitotic divisions increase number of cells and yeild a blastula
Gastrulation
Stage in animal development where structural reorganization occurs
Organ Formation
Stage in animal development that begins as cells become distinct subpopulations Selective group expression is seen here
Growth and Tissue specialization
Stage in animal development where tissues and organs mature in size, shape, porportion, and function
Blastopore
Opening of archenteron to the outside
Archenteron
the new cavity that is formed that is the beginning of the digestive system
Three new layers of cell
ectoderm- skin, nervous system
Mesoderm- skeletal muscle and circulatory system
Endoderm- digestive system
Neurolation
Begins with the formation of neural folds and includes the formation of the spinal cord
Vertebrates
Organisms that have a vertebral column that protects the spinal cord
Stomach
Primary role is to temporarily store food
Pyloric Sphincter
the juncture between the stomach and small intestine
Pepsin
Protein digesting enzyme that works best in an acidic environment
Gastric Ulcer
occurs where the stomach lining is being eaten away by contents of the stomach
Peristalsis
Rhythmic contractions of the lining of the gut that helps force food through the sphincter
Pancreas
Produces all the enzymes necessary for the digestion of food. Contains pancreatic juice
Alkaline Composition
Brings the pH level of the small intestine back to around seven. It is basic
Gallbladder
Stores the bile that is produced in the liver
Insulin
Produced by the pancreas and is necessary to maintain constant blood sugar level
Artery
takes blood away from the heart
Arterioles
a smaller version of the artery
Capillaries
small blood vessels found in the tissue. Have a thin wall which allows for material to pass through
Veins
Blood vessels taking blood towards the heart
Superior Vena Cava
Major vein that brings blood from the entire upper portion of the body back to the heart
Inferior vena cava
returning blood back to the heart from the lower part of the body
Systole
A contraction of the heart
Atrioventricular valve
between the right atrium and the right ventricle. A one way valve into the right ventricle
Diastole
A relaxation of one of the chambers of the heart
Bicuspid Valve
One way valve that only opens into the left ventricle
Blood Pressure
Systolic pressure/ diastolic pressure. Measured in mm of Hg.
cardiac muscle
Able to contract on its own. Does not require the nervous system to tell it when to contract
Synoatrial node
signaling device that triggers contraction of the heart. Causes atria to contract at the same time
Atrioventricular node
signal that reaches the AV node is then sent over thefibers causing the ventricles to contract