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190 Cards in this Set

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How do ultrasonic cleaners work?
through creating high frequency sound waves
What restraint device would you choose to safely and easily collect blood samples from agitated, crated sows?
Hog snare, sling, v-trough, rope snare
rope snare;
it can be placed around the sow's snout and the end can be secured to the bars of the farrowing crate.
In prolonged attempts to capture a sheep or pig in a paddock or pen, it is extremely easy to cause:
hyperthermia;
the insulation of a sheeps heavy wool coat and a pigs layer of body fat can lead to overheating if the animak is chased excessively
Disinfedtion is most difficult following contamination of premises with:
Cainie distemper, feline leukemia, canine parvovirus, feline calicivirus
Canine parvovirus
Goosestepping (excessive lifting of the rear legs during walking) is most likely to be caused by a deficiency of:
Pantothenic acid;
this deciciency in the diet leads to deterioration of the sciatic nerve. Affected pigs enhibit an abnormal gait.
What should rubber and plastic articles be disinfected with?
Aldehydes
What ingredient can be added to the diet of hogs to provide increased energy and reduce dust in the feed?
Fat or oil
What is the first step in decontaminating conventional animal facilities with chlorine?
remove the animals
Lack of what vitamin can cause deafness, tissue malfuction, and large course skin lesions in dogs?
A
A roll-bar in a farrowing crate keeps the sows from contacting the pen walls as she lies down; the function of the roll-bar is to prevent:
crusing the young
The neonatal calf is a preruminant and does not become a full ruminant until 3-4 months of age, depending on:
its diet
What common vice might become apparent if pigs are crowded into a pin with insufficient space for the number of animals?
tail biting
Horses prone to esophageal obstruction should not be fed:
pellets
To judge whether a dog is nervous, observe its body language. A nervous dog
has eyes darting from one thing to another.
In an isolated unit where sick animals are housed, the air pressure in the unit compared with that in the quarters housing healthy animals must be:
lower
Which foal has the greatest nutritional requirement?
healthy active foal, foal with an umbilical infection, newborn, premature foal with septicemia
premature foal with septicemia
Goats that consume excessive concentrates may be predisposed to:
rumen acidosis
Energy producing nutrients include all of the following except:
sugars, amino acids, minerals, fatty acids
minerals
Which clinical condition is often mistaken for obesity and may conceal malnutrition
Ascites: the accumulation of serous fluid in the peritoneal cavity
low environmental humidity puts neonatal puppies and kittens at risk for:
dehydration
It is acceptable and humane ro lift a newborn pig by the:
back leg;
lifting by any other body part may cause serious injury
A hog snare is used to catch and restrain pigs. For the snare to be effective, it should be placed over the:
snout and as far back in the mouth as possible;
it must control the pigs head; when the pig feels the pressure of the snare, it will pull backward
Rats can safely and humanely be picked up by:
grasping them over the shoulders
Whan restraining a sheep, which body part should not be grabbed?
wool;
it can damage SQ tissues and the fleece and may cause hemorrhages
What is an inapproperiate use of a puppy crate?
punishing
creep feed should be given to piglets a few days after birth. How much protien should be available in the ration?
18-20%
Pastures should be free of:
rocks, ponds, trees, fences
ponds
what is the protien requirement in an adult breeding sow?
10-12%
breeding sows have reached their growth potential and do no need high levels of protein for muscle devepolment
Finely ground hog feed (particles size 600-800 microns) can increase the incidence of
gastric ulcers;
studies show that the production of digestive acids increases when the pig ingests finelyground particles of feed
The number of nipple watering devices in group pens varies according to the size and number of animals involved. A pen of 20 pigs should have a minimum of ___ nipples per pen.
2 nipples per pen
What is the aparatus usually used to restrain beef cattle?
squeeze chute
What is the aparatus usually used to restrain dairycattle?
stanchions
What is the apparatus ideal fro restraining a bull to facilitate hoof trimming?
tilt table
Where is the dunging area most likely to be located in a pen that has adequate space for hogs?
at the rear
What is the most important ingested nutrient?
water
To judge whether a dog is being aggressive, observe its body language. An aggressive dog?
holds its head low between th shoulders
What is the apparatus used to restrain horses?
stock
The minimun relative humidity in a neonatal puppy housing unit should be:
50%
Feeders in finishing hog pens should have how many pigs per feeder space?
6-10 pigs per 1 feeder space
Nursing mares and foals should not be put into pastures that were grazed the previous year by:
foals
For good sanitation, outdoor runs should have bottoms constructed of
gravel
Describe how to restrain a snake.
Grasp it behind the head and support the rest of the body with your other hand. The snake's body must be supported in the middle so that the vertebrae are not damaged.
A predominant deficiency of which nutrient causes limb deformities, given current North American feeding practices of llamas?
Phosphorus
A horse with cardiac dz may not require a major dietary change. The only change may be to restrict intake of:
salt
With what clinica cx are severe abdominal pain, cardiovascular shock, vomiting, and diarrhea commonly associated in older dos, but only rarely seen in horses and pigs?
Pancreatitis
Although there is good serologic evidence that animals in shelter are expsed to many of the same pathogens, not all shelters experience a dz problem. The difference can best be described by variance in the:
standards of management practice
A first line of attack to improving voluntary feed intake in a hospitalized patient is to:
Give drugs to treat the primary condition
Selection of a disinfectant ideally depends on the:
result required
Of the cattle listed below, which is most likely to be docile?
Dairy bull, Beef bull, dairy cow, beef cow
dairy cow
Horses respond to a handler's body language more than other large animals. If you are nervous about handling horses, you should:
move quietly but confidently and say nothing
During what season should sows and boars be fed additional energy to optimize breeding effeiciecy?
summer;
sows tend to decrease their feed intake during hot weather, and reproductive performance decreases as a result of an energy deficit. Additional enegy in the ration maintains optimal breeding performance
The major consideration in evlauating a dogs diet is:
maintenance requirements, reproduction and lactation, carbohydrate content, digestibility
digestibility
A normal growth rate for puppies (per kg of anticipated adult weight) is:
2-4 g/day
Effective cage washing necessitates a temperature at some point in the cycle of at least:
82.2 degrees C (180 F)
Neonates unable to tolerate gastrointestinal feeding are often administered TPN. What does TPN stand for?
Total parenteral nutrition
After securing a mouse by its tail, the head and body can be restrained by:
Placing the mouse on a grate, pulling back on its tail, and then quickly grasping the scruff of its neck
Sudden ration changes can result in any of the following except:
cachexia, laminitis, diarrhea, colic
cachexia: a profound and marked state constitutional disorder, general ill health, and malnutrition
When "tail jacking" a cow, grasp the tail
at the base, elivate it stright up, and evaluate it doesally and directly in the midline
What is the best time of day to restrain sheep in the summer?
early morning
To collect blood from the cephalic vein of a dog or cat, you should place the animal in:
a sitting position and steady a front leg
Lack of which vitamin in goats can cause nutritional muscular dystrophy (white muscle dz)?
E
A product that destroys 100% of vegetable bacteria is classified as a:
disinfectant
Of domestic fowl, which poses the least threat to a handler?
ducks, their bill is blunt and can pinch but not break the skin
Horses with active laminitis should be fed:
average-quality hay and no grain
Before it is taken into the surgery room, portable equipment should be:
damp dusted with a disinfectant
Unlike other large animals, horses usually:
respond to voice commands
Goats spend more time eating each day that sheep. Goats ruminate approximately how many hours a day?
8
Very important in reproduction; usually called the antisterility vitamin, it is a biologic antioxidant and is considered necessary for several bodily functions.
E
A you walk through the nursery of a swine production unit, you notice that most of the pigs in the room are lying piled against the front of the pens. What does this behavior tell you about the environment?
the pigs are cold and trying to conserve body heat;
comfortable pigs spread out in the sleeping area of the pen.
To protect yourself if attacked by a dog, you should
roll yourself into a badd and protect your neck and face with your arms
This is needed by dogs in heavy training to facilitate development of erythrocytes to carry O2 from the lungs to the muscles.
Vit B12
Spikes, loose nails, and barbes wire must be removed from equine quarters to decrease the danger of waht disease?
tetanus
Ducks and geese that eat moldy feed frequently succumb to what disease?
aspergillosis
Weight loss is most commonly associated with any of the following circumstances except:
anorexia, increased nutrient demands, protein calorie malnutrition, aflatoxicosis
aflatoxicosis;
it is caused by toxic metabolities of certain molds and usually produces liver damage with possibly some weight loss; it is not a common cause
ATP is a high energy storage molecule used directly or indirectly to drive other cellular processes requiring energy. Which is wrong: transport molecules across cell membranes, synthesize chemical compounds, contract muscles, synthesize other low-energy compounds
syntheis of other low-energy compounds;
should be other high-energy components
In which cx should dietary ash be reduced and 5g of NaCl per pound of food be added to stimulate water intake and thus achieve moderate diuresis?
Urolithiasis
All of the following are nutrients required for normal horn and hoof formation except:
Lipids, Vit K, Amino acids, Protien
Vit K
For a sow to exit a farrowing crate, she must back up. What device works best to force her back out of the crate?
herding panel, bucket, hog snare, broom
broom;
all of the other items would work, but the handler's hand and arms would be at risk from the bars of the crate
When hypochlorite solution comes in contact with formaldehyde, the gas produced is very:
pleasant deodorant
The environmental temperature should be monitored routinely in a farrowing unit. Where should thermometers be placed?
near the floor at the pig's level
Which procedure is not a distraction technique?
taping the legs together, firm petting, twitching, blowing on the face
taping the legs together;
it is considered a restraint technique
A nonslip know or hitch that is safe to place around an animal's neck is the:
Bowline
What can a producer do to provide an acceptable environmental temperature for a lactating sow and her offspring?
Keep the overall area comfortable for the sow and provide zone heat for the piglets. If a sow is too warm, milk production decreases resulting in smaller pigs.
Which of the following is useful for dissolving urine scale from rabbit pans?
alkalies, acionics, acids, chelators
acids
The knot or hitch used to tie together 2 ropes of different sizes is a:
sheet bend
When livestock are exposed constantly to rain, what epidemic often occurs?
Dermatophilosis
Of the following, which takes priority in increasing the amino acid requirements of an animal?
growth and lactation, maintenance, exertional work, exercise
growth and lactation
Feeder pigs must be moved from the trailer onto a loading dock & into the barn. The barn has no windows & is dark. The pigs are reluctant to leave the trailer because they can't see the area into which you want them to move. What device would be most effective for driving them?
A herding panel beacuse it can be used to block the pigs' vision if they attempy to run to the back of the trailer
When applying a chain twitch to a horse, you should place it:
Place it on the upper lip and tighten with intermittent pressure
Sows often develop constipation during late gestation and early lactation. What should the producer do to minimize this problem and keep them at optimum performance?
Add fiber to the ration;

sows are limit-fed to prevent obesity. More fiber adds bulk to the diet without increasing calories.
Goats are most at risk for developing the metabolic condition termed ketosis during:
Late gestation;
the disease is also termed pregnancy toxemia
A well-built doghouse has all of the following properties except:
windproof against drafts, raised off the ground, insulated against cold, spacious & roomy inside
spacious & roomy inside
Use of a detergent cage-washer is an example of:
sanitation
Sudden changes in a goat's diet can lead to incomplete digestion in the rumen. The ingesta that passes to the small intestine then favors overgrowth of clostridia and production of epsilon toxin. This produces a syndrome called?
Enterotoxemia;
AKA overeating disease
What gas comprises the major gaseous energy loss as a result of fermentation in the rumen?
Methane
The best type of feeding bowl for dogs is one made of:
steel
Soap for handwashing is most likely to harbor microbes if it is in what form:
solid bar form
When formulating cattle rations, which part of the bovine digestive tract warrants most consideration?
Rumen
When handling cattle with horns, stand:
To the left and front of the animal
A nursery pig is presented for necropst. The HX states that it was healthy yesterday and was found dead this morning. Necropsy reveals "mulberry heart dz". What dietary deficiency is the most likely cause?
Vit E;
this dz is characterized by degeneration of cardiac muscle
Shoebox caging is required for housing rodents that are being:
born
Which of the following is not recommended for a weak foal?
bucket feeding, bottle feeding, nasogastric intubation, IV nutrition
Bottle feeding; it may cause aspiration pneumonia in a weak foal
When choosing a restraint method for swine, you should:
consider the size and number of animals to be handled
Swine must have access to drinking water at all times. If deprived of water for an extended period, they develop:
sodium chloride toxicity;
sodium accumulation can lead to convulsions and death.
To avoid adomasal bloat in calves, the amount of milk fed at one time should not exceed:
2L
In finishing buildings with pits, exhaust fans should pull air out of the building from the:
pit area;
animla wastes that collect in the pits produce noxious gases that should not be pulled back into the building
Because of their bellows-like breathing, which species should be held loosely if grasped around the thorax?
birds, ferrets, cats, hamsters
birds;
the lungs of birds cannot inflate if the toorax is grasped tightly
to capture a herd of goats, it is best to:
capture the lead goat and the rest will follow
When restraining a large perrot, be most careful of its
beak
Hazardous components of a cleaner or disinfectant are stated in the manufacturer's:
MSDS
You are treating sick 7-10 day old piglets.The sows are agitated by your presence & are being protective of their offspring. To minimize a sow's rxn to handling of her piglets, you should remove them. Generally, the pigs will not squeal if you lift them by grasping the:
hind leg;
althought catching by the tail is acceptabel when piglets are only a few days old, 7-10 days old piglets weigh too much
When confronted by a dog inside a kennel that is snarling, growling, and lunging at the bars, which restraint instrumentis safest for you and the dog?
capture pole
The definition of nutrients is:
a nourishing substance, food, or component of food, including minerals, vitamins, fats, protien, carbs, and water
Pigs exhibit territorial behavior. When several unfamiliar animals are mixed in a group pen, fighting may occur. If the animlas are of similar size, the aggressive behavior:
will begin shortly after the animals are introduced and will be short term
Very low humidity in a colony of rats may precipitate a problem known as:
ring tail
When restraining a rooster, be most careful of the:
spurs
For oral administration of liquid medication to a dog or cat, you should:
Leave the head in a horizontal position and administer the liquid between the lips and cheek
Ultrasonic cleaners are used to:
sanitize instruments
hyperlipidemia is usually caused by intolerance of lipids and is characterized by cloudy serum and:
increased serum triglycerides
A chain shank is used with the halter as an added restraint device. Where should it be placed?
Over the nose, dorsal to the nostrils
The cardinal rule when working with cats is to:
make sure doors and windows are firmly locked
Which piece of restraint equipment is most commonly used on horses?
halter
If you need to tie a cow's tail out of the way, it is best to tie it to:
the cow's own body
Filter caps on rodent shoebox cages reduce the:
horizontal transmittion of pathogens
In goats, night blindness, poor appetite, weight loss, unthrifty appearance with a poor haircoat, and a thick nasal discharge have resulted from a lack of vit?
A
Vitamins that are classified as fat soluble include all of the following except:
B

(ADEK are H2O soluble)
Which disinfectant should not be used around cats or other felines?
Phenolics
Enteral feeding is indicated in a horse with what condition?
dysphagia: difficulty swallowing
Healthy calves can handle what % of their body weight of milk per day without developing diarrhea?
16-20%
the most common health problem encountered when shipping animals is:
heat prostration
While blood is being collected from a gilt, she begins to show signs of porcine stress syndrome. What should you do?
Let go and refrain from stressing her further
Unless manufacturers recommend otherwise, a germicidal solution made up for use in the clinic should be discarded after:
1 weeks
Another name for thiamine; it is necessary in carbohydrate utilization; deficiency can lead to loos of appetite, weight loss, and even convulsions
Vit B1
Pigs can be challenging animals to handle. When working with swine, understand thatL:
pigs are not normally vicious, but caution is advised when working with them
Puppies that are isolated from normal environmental stimuli during their critical socialization period develop a condition known as:
Kennelosis
How high can goats commonly jump?
6 feet
Normal behavior for a cat in a new place is to:
look around and investigate
the safest place to stand next to a horse is:
On the left side
When carrying a rabbit, it is important to support its hindquarters so the animal does not:
struggle and possibly fracture its spine
A cat that was quiet and manageable before going into a cage has turned into a snarling mass of fangs and claws. What is the most likely cause of this behavior change?
it is defending its territory
during the 1st week of life, orphan puppies and kittens should be reared in an environmental temp of:
32.2 C (90F)
What nutrient comprises the greatest part of most dog rations, supplying energy and the bulk needed for proper intestinal function
carbohydrates
To restrain a kid for deworming, you should:
Fold the legs into your lap and place each hand alongside the cheeks, holding the ears out of the way with your thumbs
Because of their high fiber content and bulky nature, dry dog food should not be fed to dogs with what condition?
diarrhea
A herding panel is useful in a variety of situations. It should be constructed from:
solid lightweight material , such as plywood
When distrubed by attempts at physical restraint, a horse's initial response usually is to:
run
Which of the following housing conditions is most likely to lead to heaves in horses?
low temp in the stable, hay stored in the loft, screen partitions between stalls, fresh wood shavings for bedding
hay stored in the loft
When disinfecting using 2 products, the rule is to:
use 1 disinfectant at a time
To supply adequate nutrition via IV, solutions used must be:
hypertonic
When tying a horse to a fence rail, at what position should the rope be tied?
wither high with about 3 feet of slack
Soybean meal is often a basic component of swime diets. What does this ingredient provide?
protien
The knot of hitch used to secure a rope to a vertical bar without slippage is the:
clove hitch
Urea toxicity in small ruminants typically occurs within 1 hour after ingestion. Signs inlcude all of the following except:
low PCV, frequent urination & defication, incoordination, muscle & chin tremors
low PCV;
an elevated PCV would be seen
Which restraint equipment is most useful when moving pigs from 1 place to another?
a hurdle or portable barrier
Adult males of which species should not be group-housed?
mice
Which of the following is an example of a dietary macromineral?
Iron, Calcium, Zinc, Copper
Calcium
Which animals have the strongest instinct to remain in a group when threatened?
sheep
Prolonged undernutrition in adult horses adversely affects all of the following except:
wound healing, immune system, skeletal structures, GI tract
skeletal strucktures
A horse standing with its ears erect and moving its head erect is most likely:
alert
The knot or hitch that can be used for breeding hobbles is a:
bowline on a bight;
when this know it tied in the middle of a long rope, it forms a nonslip noose that can go around the neck. The long ends can ge wrapped around the rear legs and secured so the mare cannot kick
When the newborn lamb is nursing but receives no nutrition at all in cold environmental conditions, fat reserves last only about:
1-2 days
A llama's stomach is functionally similar to, but anatomically different from a true ruminent stomach. Who many compartments does a llama's stomach have?
3
The humidity level in a swine barn should be maintained between:
50-60% to minimize growth of bacteria and keep other contaminants (grass, respirable dust) low
The knot or hitch used to secure a lead rope to stationary objects is a:
halter tie;
a quick-release know
Excessive carbon monoxide levels in a swine barn are usually associated with:
incomplete combustion of fuel in a heater
herding behavior in swine can be described as:
limited;
they have a tendency to move as a group but ill not hesitate to seperate when stressed
Themost important factor in a dog's diet is:
availablility of water
During lactation, the feed intake of queens typically:
increases about 2-3 times
Which species is least likelyto require frequent cage cleaning?
gerbils
What vit is synthesized in the intestinal tract of dogs and other animals under normal conditions?
Vit K
Which would provide the best information on the mineral status of a horse?
Feed analysis, muscle analysis, blood and urine analyses, hair analysis
feed analysis
At what temperature is a lactating sow most comfortable?
70-75 F
If used improperly, which restraint instrument is most likely to cause broken bones, strangulation and death?
Cat bag, nose lead, restraint gloves, capture pole
restraint gloves;
they decrease your tactile perception to the extent that you could cause serious damage
What is a newborn piglet's lower critical temperature?
90-95 F;
newborns do not have the abiliy to regulate their body temp, and supplemental heat must b provided
Preventative measures against kennel cough in shelters include ensuring that the number of air changes per hour is not fewer than:
12-15
Which species can have a seizure if handled too harshly?
gerbils
Newborn piglets raised in confinement must be supplemented with:
iron;
they are born with very low iron reserves and do not obtain much while nursing the sow. Piglets raised outdoors obrain iron from the dirt lots
When a calf suckles and ingests warm milk, the reticular groove is stimulated to close so that milk and saliva pass directly into the:
Abomasum
An animal care facility is having a problem with coccidioidomycosis. Treatment of runs and pens for this problem will be most successful using a:
steam mleaner
To keep animals germ free inside a barrier unit, the air pressure inside compared with that outside must be:
higher
The apparatus used to restrain pigs weighing up to 80# is the:
V-trough (on their back)
Which statement concerning feeding of llamas is most accurate?
need to be fed 1x daily, 2x daily, free choice, on a regular schedule
They should be fed on a regular schedule
Fenses and dividers between groups of pigs should be constructed so that:
the slats are positioned vertically which pervents the pigs from climbing the fence
Floors are cleaned best using a:
wet vacuum
What piece of restraint equipement usually remains permanently attached to bulls used for breeding?
Nose ring
Llamas, like true ruminants, can break down which feed constituent into short-chained fatty acids with the assistance of bacterial and protozoa?
cellulose
Cattle add large quantities of saliva to their feed during chewing and also regurgutate during rumination. The most important effect of this is to:
buffer the acids produced in the rumen
Chutes used for moving swine should be constructed so that the sides:
have no openings;
if pigs see obstruction or movement in front of them, they stop moving
Hogs fed a diet deficient in zinc develop:
Hyperkeratosis;
zinc is a key element in the metabolism of protien, carbs, and lipids
Lack of which nutrients (2) can cause retarded growth and rickets in goat kids?
Vit C and calcium