Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/33

Click to flip

33 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
The transition from hive work to foraging is associated with what?
Messenger RNA abundance in the brain
What experimental technique was used to relate changes in behavior with changes in gene expression in the brain?
Microarray
Did microarray identify average trends or specifics?
Average trends
When do bees shift to foraging for nectar?
At 5 to 7 weeks of life
Do nurses and foragers vary in performance tempo?
Yes, some individuals work harder than others
How many microarrays were performed?
72
What was done to minimize the effect of genetic variation?
Full-sister nurses and foragers were collected in equal numbers from several genetic sources; compared them directly
For what percent of the microarray did nurses and foragers show significant differences in brain gene expression?
39%
Gene exhibited highly significant differences in expression - was the magnitude of these differences large or small?
Small
Why did the fact that foragers are older than nurses in a typical population pose a problem?
Typical colonies, therefore, did not reveal whether gene expression differences are associated iwht behavior or with age.
What was done to compensate typical colonies' inability to show if gene expression differences were associated with behavior or with age?
"Single-cohor" colonies were created, composed entirely of young bees.
What were the six sample groups?
1. Young nursers
2. Young foragers, (same age as young nursers)
3. Aged nursers
4. Aged foragers, (same age as aged nursers)
5. Typical nursers
6. Typical foragers
To formally test whether gene expression profiles in individual bee brains can predict behavior, what type of methods were used?
Two methods used to classify tumor types from microarray-generated expression
Most individuals can be readily distinguished as nurse or forager irrespective of what qualities?
Age
Genetic Sources
Colony Type
Prior Experience
Was correct behavior classification high even when all genes showing greater than 1.5-fold difference criterion were removed?
Yes, classificaiton was still high
What wasclass predicatoin analysis used for?
Readily identified a set of predictor genes expressed in the brain that could discriminate between two classes of behavior in the honey bee.
Of the 50 cDNAs most predictive for behavior, how many can be plausibly related to neural and behavioral plasticity?
17
What activities were the genes involved in that are expressed more highly in nursers? What might this suggest?
Axonogenesis and cell adhesion; could be involved in changes in brain structure that precede the shift to foraging activity
_______________________________
________________________________
What is age-related transition by honey bees from hive work to foraging associated with?
Asociated with an increase in the expression of the foraging (for) gene.
What does the for gene encode?
Encodes a guanosine 3,5-monophosphate (cGMP)-dependent protein kinase (PKG)
Describe the for gene in Drosophila.
Two for alleles are commonly present in population sof Drosophila. forR (rover) flies have higher levels of for mRNA and PKG activity and collect food over a larger area than do forS (sitter) flies
What is the transitoin to foraging typically preceded by?
A series of orientation flights; involves changes in brain chemistry, brain structure, endocrine activity, and gene expression.
Why are foragers in honey bees different from flies?
Foragers collect food for their colony and not necessarily when they themselves are hungry
Is PKG activity similar for nurses in both typical and single-cohort colonies?
Yes
What signficantly increased PKG activity: cGMP or cAMP?
cGMP
What type of mRNA do foragers have significantly higher levels of?
Amfor mRNA
Did foragers exhibit more PKG activity than nurses?
Yes - about four times as much
How did they resolve whether for up-regulation is associated primarily with foraging behavior or with the foragers' advanced age?
Maniupalated colony social structure to obtain precocious foragers - established "single-cohort coloines"
Where is Amfor highly expressed?
In the lamina of the optic lobes and in the mushroom bodies; mushroom bodies constitute multimodel sensory processing in the insect brain
What is Amfor involved in?
higher order integration of visual information associated with orientation and foraging behavior
What results from up-regulation of Amfor in the brain?
Increasein PKG activity ~ transition from hive work to foraging outside
In which species does PKG play a role in the control of feeding arousal?
Flies and bees