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30 Cards in this Set

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What type of acorns did squirrels consume and which type did they hide?
Squirrels consistently consumed acorns of high perishability and cached acorns of low perishability, without regard to handling time.
What species of acorns do the squirrels preferentially cache?
The red oak group, which over winter before germinating in the spring
What species of acorns do the squirrels preferentially consume?
Highly perishable acorns of the white oak group
What did Jacobs argue?
An animal foraging and caching under time constraints should store items with the highest consumption, (handling), times, provided that it takes less time to cache the items than to eat them, even when items with higher handling times were more perishable.
What were the 2 hypothesis?
The handling time and perishability hypotheses
Where was the experiment executed?
An urban park in Wilkes-Barre, Pennsylvania.
Why was this site in Pennsylvania selected?
Grey squirresl regularly consumed and cached acrorns ther and were easily observed as a result of their habituation to human activity.
How many experiments were performed?
Six
Which experiments controlled for handling time?
Experiments 2, 3, and 5.
Which experiments varied perishability?
Experiments 1, 2, and 3
How is the energetic value of an acorn determined?
Determined largely by its size and percentage of crude fat, so squirrels might cache large acorns high in fat to minimize the time required to store the energy needed to sustain them through winter.
Was it predicted the squirrels cache acorns higher or lower in fat content?
Higher in fat content
What were the four variables?
Perishability, Handling Time, Fat Content, Tannin Content
Do squirrels cache acorns high or low in tannins?
Cache acorns high in tannins; eat those low in tannins
What were the two conditions necessary for testing the handling time hypothesis?
1. Acorns differed significantly in handling times
2. Caching times were smaller than eating times
Which variables showed no significant effect on caching frequency?
Handling time and fat content
Which two variables accounted for 75% and 42% of caching events respectively.
Perishability and handling time
What happened in acorns using white-oak acorns, (like in experiments 5 and 6)?
Nearly all acorns were consumed
Why do squirrels notch seeds?
Kill embryos to prevent seeds from germinating; ensuring the longevity of caches
From which end do acorns consume white-oak acorns and what does this mean for tannins?
From the apical end, where the embryo is located; since tannins have highest concentration in apical end, shoes that tanning concentration alone does not significantly affect foraging and caching decisions
Which hypothesis is strongly supported?
Perishability hypothesis
Which do squirrels select for caching and which do they select for consumption: red-oak acorns or white-oak acorns?
Red-oak for caching and white-oak for consumption
What are the 7 deadly sins in the study of behavior?
1. Unjustified conclutions made from observational data
2. Data are not independent
3. Treatments are confounded by time and sequence effects.
4. No effort are made to avoid observer bias.
5. Potential artifacts arise when animals are not accustomed to experimental procedures
6. Unsuitable controls are used.
7. An attempt is made to "prove" the null hypothesis with small samples
Can cause-effect relationships be drawn from observational correlations?
No
How do people make errors with "p-value?"
Many of today's computer programs round off p at the third decimal place, tempting users to uncorrectly report a p equal to zero
Can correlational evidence ever prove a cause-effect relationship?
Never
What may be the reason that a mobbing bird is almost never attacked by the predator that is being mobbed?
It may well be that the birds take their own fleeing ability into account when they decide on their mobbing distance.
When does pseudoreplication occur?
When replicates are not statistically independent.
Give two examples of pseudoreplication suing fish in separate tanks.
1. Someone might have accidentally hit the table with the tank that contained certain groups of fish, making them more wary

2. Have 24 different types of prey fish, but only one type of predator fish
What is the example of pseudoreplication in Loss Nessies?
There might be different characteristics about the lakes that would make them more skiddish - rather than the nature of the fish themselves or the presence of a Loch Ness.