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109 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Define instinct
A behavior pattern that appears in fully functional form that first time it is performed.
Define fixed action pattern.
An instinctive behavioral sequence that is indivisible and runs to completion.
What are the two parts of a fixed action pattern?
sign stimulus and innate releasing mechanism.
What is a sign stimulus?
External sensory stimulus that triggers a Fixed Action Potential.
What is an innate releasing mechanism?
a hypothetical neural mechanism through to elicit a fixed action pattern in response to a sign stimulus.
What is the benefit of instinctual learning?
When the cost of making a mistake is high, instinct is a better, more useful tool of learning.
What is the cost of instinctual learning?
It can often be exploited.
Define imprinting.
A behavior that develops in response to environmental stimuli perceived during a brief period earlyy in life.
What is filial offspring?
Imprinting of offspring on the parent, i.e. identification of the parent
What are the various types of imprinting?
filial imprinting, habit imprinting, sexual imprinting.
When does no learning take place?
During an instinctual response.
What is learning?
Relatively permanent change in behavior as a result of experience.
Define phenotypic plasticity.
The ability of an organism to produce different phenotypes based on environmental conditions.
Define habituation
a type of learning that induces a reduced response to a stimulus over time.
Define sensitization.
A type of learning that induces an increased response to a stimulus over time.
What types of responses are provoked by a single stimulus experience?
habituation and sensitization.
Define associative learning.
Process by which an element is learned through association with a separate, pre-occuring element.
What are two different types of associative learning?
1. Classical (Pavlovian) conditioning. 2.) Operant (action, instrumental) condition.
Define unconditioned stimulus (US)
Stimulates a response without training.
Define Conditioned Stimulus (CS)
Only stimulates a certain response when paired with an unconditioned stimulus.
Define Unconditioned Response
Response without training
Define Conditioned response
Response that is initiated by something other that the initial conditioned response.
Describe classical conditioning.
When you pair to stimuli to initiate conditioned response using unconditioned and conditioned stimuli.
What are three different stimuli used in classical conditioning?
Appetitve stimuli, Neutral stimuli, and aversive stimuli.
What are the two different types of conditioning?
Excitatory and inhibitory
What is a second-order conditioning?
a conditioned response is initiated from a second conditioned stimulus.
What is operant conditioning?
Reinforcement occurs as a consequence of animal's actions. Can be important for diet choice in many vertebrates.
What is the law of effect?
Positive reinforcement strengthens association, while negative reinforcement weakens association.
Why does learning ability differ by species?
adaptive responses to the environment, and learning carries a cost.
What is biased learning?
ability to form an association depends on the likelihood of encountering similar stimuli in the wild.
What are the result of associations?
Natural selection on learning ability
What are learning abilities influenced by?
What are the costs of learning?
Metabolically expensive, developmentally involved, brains are delicate.
What are the two types of individual learning?
Single-stimulus learning and associative learning
What is social learning?
Learning by watching others.
Define cultural Transmission
the transfer of information between individuals through social learning.
Describe the difference between individual learning and social learning.
Individual learning: occurs through an individual experience, affects the behavior of an individual, information is completely lost after the information dies, and occurs slowly.

Social learning: Learning by watching others, behavior can affect behavior of a population, behaviors can be passed on, occurs quickly.
What is the difference between a model and observer? What type of learning is it associated with?
Social behavior, Model conducts the behavior and the observer learns the behavior by watching the behavior.
What are the five model-observer interactions?
Local enhancement, social facilitation, imitation, copying, teaching.
Define local enhancement.
Actions of a model draw the attention of the observer to some aspect of the environment.
Define social facilitation
Mere presence of a model draw the attention of the observer to some aspect of the environment. This often leads to formation of large foraging groups.
What is imitation?
Acquisition of a spatially novel response by an observer through observation of a model making that response. Must be a new behavior involving a new type of spatial manipulation.
Define copying.
The observer repeats what a model does.
What is the difference between coping and imitation?
Unlike imitation, coping does not have to involve a novel behavior and new spatial action.
Define teaching.
An experienced individual serves as a tutor for naive individuals, with no direct benefit to itself. Students must learn info from tutor faster than they would otherwise receive it
What are the two types of teaching?
opportunity teaching and coaching.
What isopportunity teaching?
Teacher actively places student in a situation where they can learn a new skill or acquire knowledge.
What is coaching?
Teacher directly alters behavior of students by encouragement or punishment.
What are all of the consequences of social learning?
Costs associated with making mistakes are lowered, faster rate of transmission, acquisition of new skills, and responsiveness to environmental change,
Besides learning new skills, what is another benefit of social learning?
What are the three types of cultural transmission?
Vertical Horizontal and Oblique
What is vertical cultural transmission?
Learning that happens from parent to offspring.
What is horizontal cultural transmission?
Learning that happens within a cohort (between peers)
What is oblique cultural transmission?
learning that takes place between a parent and children from a different parent.
Define fitness landscape.
graphic representation of fitness including levels such as aggressiveness and activity level.
What complicates fitness landscapes?
culture because it shifts rapidly and singular individuals and events shape culture.
What shift with culture?
Favored phenotypes and genetic structure.
Define intrasexual selection.
A form of sexual selection whereby members of one sex compete with each other for access to the other sex
Define intersexual selection.
A form of sexual selection in which individuals of one sex choose which individuals of the other sex to take as mates.
What is Bateman's Principle #1?
Females should be the choosier sex because eggs are expensive, while sperm is cheap. As a result females have lower potential reproductive success than males.
What is Bateman's Principle #2?
Males have greater variation in reproductive success than females.
What is the ultimate idea of the Bateman's principle?
Traits that influence male reproductive success experience strong selection.
Why are females choosy about their mates?
1.) Eggs are expensive. 2.) Cost of pregnancy, egg production, etc. 3.) Cost of parental care.
Describe the sex ratio.
Receptive females are usually in short supply, but even with a 1:1 ratio, females are not always fertile or receptive.
What are the four genetic models of mate choice.
Direct benefits, sensor exploitation, Good genes, and runaway selection.
Describe the "Direct Benefits" female preferential model.
Females choose males that offer good resources, i.e. nuptial figts, territories, self-sacrifice, parental care. The larger the gift, the longer the copulation.
Define the good genes theory
Females select males based on honest signals of viability-conferring genes
What is symmetry indicative of?
Symmetry is indicative of developmental stability
Define sexy sons theory
Females choose among males to maximize the reproductive success of her male offspring.
Describe Fisher's Runaway Selection.
Females develop a preference for a male trait, and males develop that male trait for which females can differentiate. The sons of this generation do better because they have the preferred trait. Daughters do better because they select preferred trait with leads to better reproductive success. Continual increase in trait preference is opposed by natural selection. (Hence, this is runaway)
Define the Sensory Exploitation Theory.
Origin of male traits via exploitation of pre-existing sensory biases in females can, in theory, have three subsequent evolutionary results
What are the four types of intrasexual selection?
Physical competition, condition mating strategies, distinct mating strategies, and sperm competition.
Define dominance hierarchy.
Social ranking within a group in which some individual gives way to others.
What is the significance of dominance hierarchies?
There is no direct competition for females, just for rank.
What are the three aspects of mating systems?
Social, sexual, and genetic.
Describe the social aspect of a mating system.
Sociospatial relationship between males and females. Describes who they spend their time with and the number of mates.
Describe the sexual part of a mating system.
The copulatory patterns for males and females.
Describe the genetic aspect of a mating system.
Fertilization patterns between males and females.
Define a monogamous mating system.
Mating system in which a male and female only mate with each other during a single breeding season.
What are the two different types of monogamy?
Serial monogamy and lifetime monogamy.
Who is monogamous?
About 90% of birds, <10% of mammals, and only some insects, fishes, reptiles and amphibians.
Why is monogamy a puzzle?
Males generally provide little resources to young and have an abundance of sperm with which they could fertilize several females. Hence, they would benefit from seeking extra mates to increase reproductive success.
Define the mate guarding hypothesis.
Monogamy is adaptive because females may be discovered by other males. Generally happens when the chances of finding another female is low.
Define the mate assistance hypothesis
monogamy is adaptive because help is needed from both parents to ensure offspring survival. Improved survivorship of offspring outweighs the benefits of mating multiple times.
Define the female-enforced hypothesis
Males would benefit from multiple mating attempts, but the females are vigilant.
Why are birds more likely to be monogamous than mammals?
Birds need to incubate external eggs and feed the young, whereas mammals have pregnancy and can feed their young with milk.
Define extra-pair copulations
mating with individuals other than the social partner
Define extra-pair paternity
siring offspring from males other than the social partner.
Define a polygynous mating system.
males mate with more than one female per mating season.
Which animals partake in polygyny?
>90% of mammals and <10% of birds.
What are the three types of polygyny?
Female-defense polygyny, Resource-defense polygyny, and Lek polygyny
Describe Female-defense polygyny.
System in which males defend groups of females from mating attemps by other males. Females are social and female groupse are defensible, which leads to a formation of seasonal or permanent harems.
How is female-defense polygyny possible?
Female defense polygyny is only possible because females cluster for their own reasons and males exploit this.
What animals use female-defense polygyny and why?
Lions to defend feeding territories, Deer for protection, and elephant seals due to the limited number of nursery beaches.
Describe resource-defense polygyny.
System in which males defend a scarce resource that females need for successful reproduction. Resources are patchy. May also defend from other males.
Describe Lek Polygyny
Males set up and defend small territories (leks) specifically for mating that contain no apparent resources; the males only provide the sperm.
Why does Lek Polygyny have a highly skewed mating success?
Only a few males obtain most of the matings because they are the most adaptive.
Define polyandrous mating system
Females mate with more than one male per mating season.
What animals portray polyandry?
rare in brds and mammals, but common in fish.
What are the three indirect benefits of polyandry?
Fertility insurance, good genes, and genetic compatibility.
What are the three direct benefits of polyandry?
more resources, better protection, and infanticide reduction.
Define the fertility insurance hypothesis.
A hypothesis of polyandry state that females reduce the risk that sperm from one male left eggs unfertilized, so mating with more than one male is essentially a "back-up-plan"
Define the good genes hypothesis.
A hypothesis of polyandry that suggests if a female's social partner is of lower genetic quality, she will mate with other available males.
Define the genetic compatibility hypothesis.
A hypothesis of polyandry that states with polyandry comes an increased chance of a good match between sperm DNA and egg DNA.
Describe the more resources hypothesis.
A hypothesis of polyandry that suggests mating with more than one male leads to more resources and parental care of offspring.
Describe the better protection hypothesis.
A hypothesis of polyandry that states mating with more males with lead to more males protecting the female from other males.
Describe the infanticide reduction hypothesis.
A hypothesis of polyandry that suggests mating with multiple males will lead to greater confusion over paternity and thus reduce infanticide.
Define promiscuity
Males and females mate with multiple partners and no pair bonds are formed.
Define polygynandry
Several males form pair bonds with several females.