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23 Cards in this Set

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What do herring gull chicks pay attention to when feeding?
The shape of the bill and its red dot.
What happened to the fixed action response of the goose rolling its egg into the next?
The bird would continue pulling its head back just as if an egg were still balanced against the underside of its bill.
What is ethology?
The discipline dedicated to the study of both the proximate and ultimate causes of animal behavior; especially interested in the instincts exhibited by wild animals living under natural conditions.
What is an instinct?
A behavior that appears in fully functional form the first time it is performed, even though the animal may have had no previous experience with the cues.
What is the neural network called that is responsible for detecting the simple cue?
sign stimulus/releaser
What is responsible for activating the instinct?
Fixed action patter/innate releasing mechanism
Describe the structure of the noctuid moth's ear that allows it to hear ultrasound.
The tympanic membrane lies over a chamber on the side of a thorax; It's attached to two neurons, the A1 and A2 auditory receptors. The A1 and A2 receptors respond to the energy contained in selected stimuli by changing the permeability of their cell membranes to positively charged ions. As positively charged ions flow in, they change the electrical charge inside the cell relative to the charge on the other side of the membrane. As positively charged ions flow in, they change the electrical charge inside the cell relative to the charge on the other side of the membrane. If the If the inward movement of ions is sufficiently great, the electrical charge difference across the membrane may occur and spread to neighboring portions of the membrane - the "transmission line" of the cell.
What is the brief, all-or-nothing change in electrical charge called, that causes the signal used by neurons to communicate?
Action potential
What type of nerve cells are A1 and A2 receptors?
interneurons
What is a ganglion?
A neural structure composed of a highly organized mass of neurons
What is the A1 receptor sensitive to?
Ultrasounds of a low to moderate intensity.
What is the A2 receptor sensitive to?
Relatively loud ultrasounds.
Does the A1 receptor fire more frequently to pulses of sound or steady, uninterrupted sounds?
Pulses of sound
How can moths detect whether the predator is higher or lower?
If the predator is higher than the moth, then with every up-and-down movement of the insect's wings, there will be a corresponding fluctuation in the rate of firing of the A1 receptors. IF the bat is lower than the moth, there will be no such fluctuation in neural activity.
How do the moth sound receptors interact?
As the moth turns away from the relatively intense ultrasound reaching one side of its body, it will reach a point at which both A1 cells are equally active; at this moment, it will be facing in the opposite direction from the bat and will be heading away from danger.
Describe the int-1 cell in the cricket.
The int-1 cell is part of a neural circuit that helps crickets steer away from ultrasound
What is the flight path of the cricket controlled by?
Controlled by the position of the insect's hind leg, which, when lifted into a hindwing, alters the beat of that wing and thereby changes the cricket's position in space.
What is the central pattern generator?
Mechanism by which the simple neural network imposes order on the activity of motor neurons
What is stimulus filtering?
The ability of neurons and neural networks to ignore vast amounts of potential information in order to focus on biologically relevant elements within the diverse stimuli bombarding an animal.
Do the A1 receptors in moths discriminate between different ultrasonic frequencies?d
No
What are Eimer's organs?
Tiny sensory devises in 11 appendages on each side of a star-nosed moles nose.
What is a listener's perception of spoken language heavily influenced by?
Visual cue provided by the moving lips of a speaker
What is fact recognition dependent on?
An intact fusiform gyrus; people who have suffered an injury to this part of the brain are no longer able to recognize people by their faces