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62 Cards in this Set

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young male bovine
bull
genus and species for beef cattle without Zebu influence
Bos indicus
normal expected reproductive % for range flock ovine
120
gamete production in male
spermatogenesis
number of functional sex cells produced by a germ cell in oogenesis
1
young female equine
filly
average bovine birth weight
80 lbs
normal calving interval
12 months
standard for reporting the weaning age for beef cattle
205 days
if two homozygous individuals are mated, the expected geno- and phenotypic ratios of the offspring will be:
the same
young male bovine
bull
genus and species for beef cattle without Zebu influence
Bos indicus
normal expected reproductive % for range flock ovine
120
gamete production in male
spermatogenesis
number of functional sex cells produced by a germ cell in oogenesis
1
young female equine
filly
average bovine birth weight
80 lbs
normal calving interval
12 months
standard for reporting the weaning age for beef cattle
205 days
if two homozygous individuals are mated, the expected geno- and phenotypic ratios of the offspring will be:
the same
the most common form of mating a male and female that are closely related
inbreeding
phenotype = _____ + _____
genotype, environment
the process of ovum production by the female
oogenesis
how likely is it that two individual animals of the same breed are closely related that come from two different herds 250 miles apart that are owned by two different producers?
very unlikely
gene interaction where a gene masks the expression of another gene
epistasis
T/F: Much less genetic progress can be made from total selection within a group of animals as opposed to obtaining some animals from outside and incorporating their genetics.
true
cellular regeneration of sex cells
meiosis
condition of allelic interaction where heterozygous genes are superior to either homozygote
over dominance
loin eye area would be classified as a _____ trait
quantitative
T/F: all species of animals have a different number of chromosome pairs in each cell
true
method of culling that selects for more than one trait simultaneously and is most commonly used
independent culling
What do you do to your selection intensity of your animals as replacements in a herd to make more genetic progress?
increase it
Which species could make the most genetic improvement over a lifetime?
poultry
a cross breeding program in which all animals produced are predetermined to be sold
terminal crossing
What criteria is used most commonly in the selection process for breeding animals?
phenotype
____ is the fraction of the differences among animals for a particular trait that is transmitted to the offspring
heritability
ADG is a trait that is effected most by what type of influence?
genetic influence
Litter size in hogs is affected most by what type of influence?
environmental
condition in which a gene may have influence on more than one trait
pleiotrophy
environmental influence that is the root cause of most phenotypic differences
nutrition
condition in which one testicle is retained
monorchidism
traits that are influenced by many pairs of genes
quantitative
parent that determines the sex of offspring in every species except for birds
male
most accurate method of evaluating animals for breeding stock, but takes a long time and lots of animals
progeny test
form of animal mating that is used to increase the inheritance from one or more outstanding ancestors in a pedigree
linebreeding
common type of mating system that results in the greatest amount of heterosis
crossbreeding
outbreeding program in which crossbred females are bred to a male of a third breed
rotational cross
Should emphasis be on merit or uniformity in genetic improvement?
merit
# of sperm produced in spermatogenesis
4
a fertilized egg
zygote
genes are both dominant
homozygous dominant
genes are both recessive
homozygous recessive
one recessive and one dominant gene
heterozygous
passed from parent to offspring to determine the various traits and characteristics of the progeny
genes
condition in which offspring are superior to parents
heterosis
through fertilization, chromosome numbers become ____
diploid
number of chromosomes possessed by each egg and sperm cell, regardless of the species
haploid
animal species with the most chromosome pairs
turkeys
mating unrelated animals of the same breed
outcrossing
continually mating animals that are not related will increase ____
heterozygosity
animals that are eligible for registry in their breed associations
purebreeds
category of livestock production that most producers fit
commercial